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Effects of Spray Internal EGR Using CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel on Combustion Characteristics and Emissions in Diesel Engine

Doshisha University-Tomoyuki Mukayama, Yoshitaka Hattori, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
YANMAR Co., Ltd.-Masaki Kuribayashi, Go Asai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0592
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We have proposed the application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) gas dissolved fuel which might improve spray atomization through effervescent atomization instead of high injection pressure. Since EGR gas is included in the spray of EGR gas dissolved fuel, it directly contributes to combustion, and the further reduction of NOx emissions is expected rather than the conventional external EGR. In our research, since highly contained in the exhaust gas and highly soluble in the fuel, CO2 was selected as the dissolved gas to simulate EGR gas dissolved. In this paper, the purpose is to evaluate the influence of the application of CO2 gas dissolved fuel on the combustion characteristics and emission characteristics inside the single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. As a result, by use of the fuel, smoke was reduced by about 50 to 70%, but NOx reduction does not have enough effect. However, NOx emissions is reduced with external EGR, and the effect of NOx reduction is effective by combined the external EGR and the CO2 gas dissolved fuel.
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Improvement of Combustion Characteristics and Emissions by Applying CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel in Diesel Engine

Doshisha University-Tomoyuki Mukayama, Jumpei Yamamoto, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
YANMAR CO., LTD.-Masaki Kuribayashi, Go Asai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2274
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
We have proposed the application of EGR gas dissolved fuel which might improve spray atomization through effervescent atomization instead of high injection pressure. In this paper, the purpose is to evaluate the influence of the application of CO2 gas dissolved fuel on the combustion characteristics and emissions inside the single cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. As a result, by use of the fuel, smoke was reduced by about 50 to 70%. The amount of NOx was reduced at IMEP=0.3 MPa, but it was increased at IMEP=0.9 MPa.
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A Study of a Lean Homogeneous Combustion Engine System with a Fuel Reformer Cylinder

Hokkaido University-Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yusuke Watanabe
YANMAR Co., Ltd.-Go Asai, Yuki Tokuoka, Thomas Bayer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2177
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The Dual-Fuel (DF) combustion is a promising technology for efficient, low NOx and low exhaust particulate matter (PM) engine operation. To achieve equivalent performance to a DF engine with only the use of conventional liquid fuel, this study proposes the implementation of an on-board fuel reformation process by piston compression. For concept verification, DF combustion tests with representative reformed gas components were conducted. Based on the results, the controllability of the reformed gas composition by variations in the operating conditions of the reformer cylinder were discussed.
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Chemical Reaction Processes of Fuel Reformation by Diesel Engine Piston Compression of Rich Homogeneous Air-Fuel Mixture

SAE International Journal of Engines

Hokkaido University-Yusuke Watanabe, Shuntaro Ishiguro, Gen Shibata, Hideyuki Ogawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi
YANMAR Co., Ltd.-Go Asai
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-32-0120
Published 2017-11-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
To extend the operational range of premixed diesel combustion, fuel reformation by piston induced compression of rich homogeneous air-fuel mixtures was conducted in this study. Reformed gas compositions and chemical processes were first simulated with the chemistry dynamics simulation, CHEMKIN Pro, by changing the intake oxygen content, intake air temperature, and compression ratio. A single cylinder diesel engine was utilized to verify the simulation results. With the simulation and experiments, the characteristics of the reformed gas with respect to the reformer cylinder operating condition were obtained. Further, the thermal decomposition and partial oxidation reaction mechanisms of the fuel in extremely low oxygen concentrations were obtained with the characteristics of the gas production at the various reaction temperatures.The main reformed products were hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ethylene (C2H4) and the results indicated that the reforming depends on the maximum temperature in the cylinder, however, the amount of reformed gas is lower than the values predicted by the CHEMKIN simulation.
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Improvement of Spray and Combustion Process by Applying CO2 Gas Dissolved Fuel

Doshisha University-Tomoyuki Mukayama, Ryota Nishigami, Annisa Bhikuning, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
YANMAR CO., LTD.-Go Asai, Masaki Kuribayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2017-32-0046
Published 2017-11-05 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The CO2 gas dissolved fuel for the diesel combustion is effective to reduce the NOx emissions to achieve the internal EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) effect by fuel. This method has supplied EGR gas to the fuel side instead of supply EGR gas to the intake gas side. The fuel has followed specific characteristics for the diesel combustion. When the fuel is injected into the chamber in low pressure, this CO2 gas is separated from the fuel spray. The distribution characteristics of the spray are improved and the improvement of the thermal efficiency by reduction heat loss in the combustion chamber wall, and reduce soot emissions by the lean combustion is expected. Furthermore, this CO2 gas decreases the flame temperature. Further, it is anticipated to reduce NOx emissions by the spray internal EGR effect.In this paper, the n-tridecane and CO2 gas were used as a basic fuel spray research, and shadowgraph photography and luminescence flame photography were conducted to measure the evaporation characteristics and flame characteristics of the fuel spray. In addition, chemiluminescence photography and luminous…
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Analysis of the Turbocharger Speed to Estimate the Cylinder-to-Cylinder Injection Variations - Part 1 - Time Domain Analysis

National Research Council of Italy-Lorenzo Ferrari
University of Florence-Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, the early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures.The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. The cost and the intrusiveness of the dynamic pressure sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make the direct measurement of the in-cylinder pressure not suitable for mass production applications.Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control.For turbocharged engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that turbocharger instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle. By considering diesel engines, strong attention is paid to the injectors, which operating characteristics vary with respect to the nominal one usually due to the injector individual tolerance and the time degradation. The…
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Analysis of the Turbocharger Speed to Estimate the Cylinder-to-Cylinder Injection Variations - Part 2 - Frequency Domain Analysis

National Research Council of Italy-Lorenzo Ferrari
University of Florence-Giovanni Vichi, Michele Becciani, Isacco Stiaccini, Giovanni Ferrara
Published 2016-11-08 by SAE International in United States
For the development of a very high efficiency engine, the continuous monitoring of the engine operating conditions is needed. Moreover, the early detection of engine faults is fundamental in order to take appropriate corrective actions and avoid malfunctioning and failures.The in-cylinder pressure is the most direct parameter associated to the engine thermodynamic cycle. The cost and the intrusiveness of the dynamic pressure sensor and the harsh operating condition that limits its life-time, make the direct measurement of the in-cylinder pressure not suitable for mass production applications.Consequently, research is oriented on the measurement of physical phenomena linked to the thermodynamic cycle to obtain useful information for the ICE control.For turbocharged engine application, the direct connection between the thermo-dynamic and fluid-dynamic conditions at the engine cylinder exit and the turbocharger behavior suggests that turbocharger instantaneous speed could give useful information about the engine cycle. By considering diesel engines, strong attention is paid to the injectors, which operating characteristics vary with respect to the nominal one usually due to the injector individual tolerance and the time degradation. The…
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Experimental Analysis on Soot Formation Process In DI Diesel Combustion Chamber by Use of Optical Diagnostics

Doshisha Univ.-Jiro Senda, Dae Choi, Makoto Iwamuro, Hajime Fujimoto
Yanmar Diesel Engine Co., Ltd.-Go Asai
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
Soot formation process inside the combustion chamber of an DI diesel engine is focused as a phenomenological basic scheme by using several optical diagnostics technique for the improvement of diesel exhaust emission. We have conducted the series of optical measurement research for the clarification of combustion field in an DI diesel engine. Then, this paper is a kind of review by adding the fuel vapor properties and particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis with focusing the soot formation process. The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The spray characteristics and its flow field in 2-D field were measured by laser sheet scattering (LIS) method and PIV scheme. Fuel vapor concentration field was also detected quasi-quantitatively as 2-D distribution by laser-induced exciplex fluorescence (LIEF) method, which is based on application of the TMPD/naphthalene exciplex system, relating to soot formation (initiation) process. Here, the heterogeneity of the vapor concentration should be discussed for the soot initiation, and the 2-D distribution of soot particles in several planes…
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Soot formation and oxidation process in a DI diesel engine by use of LII/LIS technique

Doshisha Univ.-Dae Choi, Masatatsu Enami, Jiro Senda, Hajime Fujimoto
Mitsubishi Motor Co.-Kazuo Kurata
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-08-0344
Published 1999-07-13 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Soot formation and oxidation in a direct-injection (DI) diesel combustion has been investigated using the simultaneous measurement of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and laser- induced scattering (LIS), two-color method, and cross-correlation velocimetry. Measurements were carried out in a small-sized, high-speed DI diesel engine with optical access view. The relative soot diameter and its number density were derived from LII/LIS images. The correlation between soot temperature and relative soot density (KL factor) was investigated by use of two- color method and cross-correlation velocimetry. In addition, the results of the authors'' previous study on the natural emission of OH radical were combined with the data obtained by the present study.
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OH Radical Generation and Soot Formation/Oxidation in DI Diesel Engine

Doshisha Univ.-Hajime Fujimoto, Jiro Senda
Mitsubishi Motors-Kazuo Kurata
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
OH radical generated in a DI diesel engine has a close relationship to soot oxidation. To clarify this fact, the distribution of the natural emission of OH radical was captured by means of an interference filter system and that of soot was detected by the simultaneous application of a laser induced incandescence (LB) and a laser induced scattering (LIS). The experiments were carried out in a small sized high-speed DI diesel engine installed with an optical access view. The generation of OH radical and the formation/oxidation of soot are discussed by using both images.
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