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Steering and Handling Performance Optimization Through Correlation of Objective - Subjective Parameters and Multi-body Dynamics Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Deva Ranjit Kumar Rajarajan, Vinothprakash Rajasekar, Shraddhesh Rasal, Baskar Anthonysamy, Visweswara Lenka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2412
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented. In first phase, correlation of objective steering & handling parameters is established with subjective evaluation, based on evaluation of various vehicles in SUV segment. The objective parameters which give highest correlation are selected for target setting process. In second phase, Multi-body dynamic(MBD) model is developed in MSC ADAMS and is validated through physical kinematic and compliance data. Components such…
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Systematic Work Flow for Fatigue Life Prediction of Automotive Components

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Krishna Shettipally, Manohar Kalal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation. A full vehicle model is prepared in ADAMS CAR and validated through Physical testing. The loads on suspension hard points extracted from the validated MBD model. These loads at various hardpoint locations, are used…
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Develop the Methodology Using DOE Approach to Improve Steering Return Ability of a Vehicle through Virtual Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Naveen Medithi, Karthik Senthi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared, and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in ADAMS/CAR for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters. The effect of different parameters in terms of their importance is plotted and discussed. The objective is to establish the methodology to predict correct steering return…
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Identification and Resolution of Vehicle Pull and Steering Wobble Using Virtual Simulation and Testing

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Baskar Anthonysamy, Vishal Barde, Naveen Medithi, Senthil S, Balaramakrishna N
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. Vehicle pull is a condition where the driver must apply a constant correction torque to the steering wheel to maintain a straight-line course of the vehicle. This paper presents an investigation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift. The aim of the work is to study vehicle stability and the causes of vehicle drift/pull during straight line to minimize vehicle pull level and hence optimize safety measures.A wobble in the steering wheel feels like the steering wheel is shaking to the left and right. This may get worse, if speed increases.This paper focuses on modelling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, brake drag variation, Unbalanced mass in the wheel assembly and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment.Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side to be causing the drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of…
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Multi-Objective Optimization to Improve SUV Ride Performances Using MSC.ADAMS and Mode Frontier

Mahindra Research Valley-Visweswara Rao Lenka, Baskar Anthonysamy, Abhijit Londhe, Harshad Hatekar
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Ride is an important attribute which must be accounted in the passenger segment vehicles. Excessive H point acceleration, Steering wheel acceleration, Pitch acceleration can reduce the comfort of the driver and the passengers during high frequency and low frequency rough road events. Excessive Understeer gradient, roll gradient, roll acceleration and Sprung mass lift could affect the Vehicle driver interaction during Steady state cornering, Braking and Step steer events. The concept architecture of the vehicle plays an important role in how comfort the vehicle will be.This paper discusses how to improve SUV ride performances by keeping handling performance attributes same or better than base vehicle. Multi Objective Optimization was carried out by keeping spring, bushing and damper characteristic as the design variables to avoid new system or component development time and cost.The first step in this process is DOE (Design of Experiments method) which allows to select critical or highly influence input variables and to understand the effect of input variables on output performances. The consequent Optimization leads to select the optimum from various conflicting solutions.
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Commercial Vehicle Two Cylinder Powertrain Mount Selection Based on Robust Optimization Using MSC/ADAMS and Mode Frontier

Mahindra Research Valley-Suyash Gawade, Baskar Anthonysamy, Perumal J
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Ride comfort, drivability and driving stability are important factors defining vehicle performance and customer satisfaction. The IC powertrain is the source for the vibration that adversely affects the vehicle performance. The IC powertrain is composed of reciprocating and rotating components which result in unbalanced forces, moments during operation and produce vibrations at the vehicle supporting members. The vibration reduction is possible by minimizing unbalanced forces and/or by providing anti-vibration mounts at the powertrain-vehicle interface.The power train is suspended on the vehicle frame via several flexible mounts, whose function is to isolate powertrain vibrations from the frame. Total six different modes of powertrain vibration namely - roll, yaw, pitch, vertical, lateral and longitudinal need to be isolated. Powertrain mount stiffness and location is critical in this regard. The corresponding six modal frequencies must meet certain acceptance criteria which are calculated based on factors like number of cylinders, idling rpm and wheel hop frequency. The modal kinetic energy distribution must ensure proper decoupling between the six modes.In this study, a commercial vehicle two-cylinder powertrain model mounted on…
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Tuning of Brake Force Distribution for Pickup Truck Vehicle LSPV Brake System During Cornering Maneuver

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Baskar Anthonysamy, Arun Kumar Prasad, Babasaheb Shinde
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle.Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whosebrake force distribution is variable. Braking force distribution has an important and serious role in thevehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking forcedistribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the virtual optimization process has beenimplemented. This strategy, defined as an innovative braking force distribution strategy, is based on the wheel slips.The simulation results illustrate proposed strategy can significantly improve the vehicle stability in curved braking fordifferent levels of vehicle deceleration.
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Prediction of Hub Load on Power Steering Pump Using Dynamic Simulation and Experimental Measurement

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Vishal Barde, Baskar Anthonysamy, Ganeshan Reddy, Senthil S, Visweswara lenka, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
New trend in steering system such as EPS is coming up, but still hydraulic power steering system is more prevalent in today’s vehicles. Power steering pump is a vital component of hydraulic power steering system. Failure of steering pump can lead to loss of power assistance. Prediction of hub load on pump shaft is an important design input for pump manufacturer. Higher hub loads than the actual designed load of pump bearing may lead to seizure of pump. Pump manufacturer has safe limits for hub load. Simulations can assist for optimization of belt layout and placement of accessories to reduce the hub load. Lower hub load can have direct effect on improvement of pump durability. This paper deals with dynamic simulation of belt drive system in MSC.ADAMS as well as vehicle level measurement of hub load on power steering pump. Hub load is measured with two different belt layout as well as in different maneuver related to cranking and high speed conditions at which the worst load cases are seen.At cranking, the highest torque load…
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Silent Block Bush Design and Optimization for Pick-Up Truck Leaf Spring

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Harshad Hatekar, Baskar Anthonysamy, V. Saishanker, Lakshmi Pavuluri, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Structural elastomer components like bushes, engine mounts are required to meet stringent and contrasting requirements of being soft for better NVH and also be durable at different loading conditions and different road conditions. Silent block bushes are such components where the loading in radial direction of bushes are high to ensure the durability of bushes at high loads, but has to be soft on torsion to ensure good NVH. These requirements present with unique challenge to optimize the leaf spring bush design, stiffness and material characteristics of the rubber.Traditionally, bushes with varying degree of stiffness are selected, manufactured and tested on vehicle and the best one is chosen depending on the requirements. However, this approach is costly, time consuming and iterative.In this study, the stiffness targets required for the bush were analysed using static and dynamic load cases using virtual simulation (MSC.ADAMS). Simultaneously, the Road Load Data (RLD) acquired for specific test track was run for to get the loads and cycles on the bush. The data was refined with further runs to get the…
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Verification of Non-ABS Vehicle Performance with Real Time Suspension Deflection

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Arun Kumar Prasad, Baskar Anthonysamy, V.A. Gopalakrishn, Gurdeep Singh Pahwa
Published 2016-09-18 by SAE International in United States
Fierce competition in India’s automotive industry has led to constant production innovation among manufactures. This has resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design philosophies and design tools. One of the performance factors that have continues to challenge automotive designer is to design and fine tune the braking performance with low cost and short life cycle.Braking performance of automotive vehicle is facilitated by the adhesion between the tyre and the ground. Braking force generated at the wheels of a vehicle have to appropriately match to the adhesion. Antilock braking system (ABS) is used for this purpose. ABS is a modern braking system which could significantly improve directional stability and reduce stopping distance of a vehicle. However this system still too complicated and expensive to use in low end compact car and pickup truck.In this research, the adaptation of a load sensing valve on the subject vehicle along with the real time performance is evaluated and compared with the simulation results using MSC.ADAMS/CAR software.Close correlation is established between actual testing and the simulation.…
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