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Impact of Demanding Low Temperature Urban Operation on the Real Driving Emissions Performance of Three European Diesel Passenger Cars

Concawe, Belgium-Heather Hamje
Eni SpA, Italy-Corrado Fittavolini, Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
In Europe, the development and implementation of new regulatory test procedures including the chassis dynamometer (CD) based World Harmonised Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) procedure, has been driven by the close scrutiny that real driving emissions and fuel consumption from passenger cars have come under in recent times. This is due to a divergence between stated certification performance and measured on-road performance, and has been most pointed in the case of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emissions from diesel cars. The RDE test is certainly more relevant than CD test cycles, but currently certification RDE cycles will not necessarily include the most extreme low speed congested or low temperature conditions which are likely to be more challenging for NOx after-treatment systems. To build understanding of the emissions and fuel consumption performance of the latest available diesel passenger cars, Concawe has conducted a study of the performance of three vehicle types. Two of the vehicles featured urea-dosed Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) after-treatment, whilst the third was fitted with a Lean NOx…
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Real-World Emissions Measurements of a Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle without and with a Gasoline Particulate Filter

AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
Concawe-Heather Hamje
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The market share of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles has been increasing, promoted by its positive contribution to the overall fleet fuel economy improvement. It has however been reported that this type of engine is emitting more ultrafine particles than the Euro 6c Particle Number (PN) limit of 6·1011 particles/km that will be introduced in Europe as of September 2017 in parallel with the Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure.The emissions performance of a Euro 6b GDI passenger car was measured, first in the OEM build without a Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) and then as a demonstrator with a coated GPF in the underfloor position. Regulated emissions were measured on the European regulatory test cycles NEDC and WLTC and in real-world conditions with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) according to the published European RDE procedure (Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 and 2016/646). Finally, tests were conducted on the chassis dyno to explore the impact of going towards the RDE boundary conditions (driving dynamics and ambient temperature as defined in the RDE legislation).PN results showed that the vehicle…
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On-Road and Chassis Dynamometer Evaluations of Emissions from Two Euro 6 Diesel Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AECC-John May, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
Ricardo UK-Jon Andersson, Simon de Vries, Matthew Heaney, Matthew Keenan, Jonathon Mansell
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2826
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The exhaust emissions of two Euro 6 diesel cars with different emissions control systems have been evaluated both on the road and over various chassis dynamometer test cycles. European emissions limits are currently set using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), but the European Commission is preparing additional test procedures to ensure that emissions are well controlled both in real-world use and over the legislative test cycle. The main focus of this work on ‘Real Driving Emissions’ (RDE) is on measurements using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) in truly representative, on-road, driving. A key focus of the test programme, undertaken as a collaboration between AECC (the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst) and Ricardo UK, was therefore the use of PEMS systems to measure on-road emissions of both gaseous pollutants and particulate matter. This included measurement of particle number emissions with a new candidate system for this type of measurement.The results from this testing are compared with emissions measured over four different chassis dynamometer test cycles - the current legislative cycle (New European Driving Cycle,…
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Studies on the Impact of 300 MPa Injection Pressure on Engine Performance, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions

SAE International Journal of Engines

John Deere Power Systems-Craig Lohmann, Drew Schultz, Nam Hyo Cho, Richard Winsor
Ricardo Inc.-Krishna Natti, Abhimanyu Sinha, Christian Hoerter, Per Andersson
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0897
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
An investigation has been carried out to examine the influence of up to 300 MPa injection pressure on engine performance and emissions. Experiments were performed on a 4 cylinder, 4 valve / cylinder, 4.5 liter John Deere diesel engine using the Ricardo Twin Vortex Combustion System (TVCS). The study was conducted by varying the injection pressure, Start of Injection (SOI), Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) vane position and a wide range of EGR rates covering engine out NOx levels between 0.3 g/kWh to 2.5 g/kWh. A structured Design of Experiment approach was used to set up the experiments, develop empirical models and predict the optimum results for a range of different scenarios. Substantial fuel consumption benefits were found at the lowest NOx levels using 300 MPa injection pressure. At higher NOx levels the impact was nonexistent.In a separate investigation a Cambustion DMS-500 fast particle spectrometer, was used to sample and analyze the exhaust gas. The effect of the above engine variables on particle size distribution and total number was studied. Results indicate that increasing injection pressure…
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The Effect of Low Viscosity Oil on the Wear, Friction and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Truck Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Infineum UK Ltd-Ian Field, Emmanuel Lainé
Infineum USA LP-Jai Bansal, Maryann Devine
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0331
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the results of a series of tests on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine using conventional and low viscosity lubricants. The objectives were to explore the impact of reducing lubricant viscosity on wear, friction and fuel consumption. The radiotracing Thin Layer Activation method was used to make on-line measurements of wear at the cylinder liner, top piston ring, connecting rod small end bush and intake cam lobe. The engine was operated under a wide range of conditions (load, speed and temperature) and with lubricants of several different viscosity grades. Results indicate the relationship between lubricant viscosity and wear at four critical locations. Wear at other locations was assessed by analysis of wear metals and post test inspection.The fuel consumption was then measured on the same engine with the same lubricants. Results indicate the relationship between oil viscosity and fuel consumption under a wide range of operating conditions. Expected fuel consumption improvements over a typical drive cycle were calculated.Friction of the whole engine was calculated from measurements of cylinder pressure and brake torque, with…
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Heavy Duty Particle Measurement Programme (PMP): Exploratory Work for the Definition of the Test Protocol

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ricardo UK-Jon Andersson
Transport and Air Quality Unit, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission-Barouch Giechaskiel, Massimo Carriero, Giorgio Martini
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-1767
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The heavy duty Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) inter-laboratory exercise consists of three parts: 1) the exploratory work to refine the measurement protocol, 2) the validation exercise where each lab will measure the emissions of a “golden” engine with two “golden” particle number systems simultaneously sampling from full and partial flow dilution systems, and 3) the round-robin where the emissions of a “reference” engine will be determined with a lab’s own particle number instrumentation. This paper presents the results of the exploratory work and describes the final protocol for testing in the validation exercise (and round robin) along with the necessary facility modifications required for compliance with the protocol. Key aspects of the protocol (e.g. filter material, flow rates at the full and partial flow systems, the pre-conditioning etc.) are explained and justified. Finally, the results of particle emissions measurements during the World harmonized and the European cycles are given focusing on volatility and the presence of non-volatile materials above and below 23 nm.
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An Emissions Performance Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Motorcycles over Euro 3 and WMTC Drive Cycles

AECC - Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AISBL-Cécile Favre, Dirk Bosteels, John May
Ricardo – Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd-Ian De Souza, Leon Beale, Jon Andersson
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Four state-of-the-art >500 cc Euro 3 and one 150 cc Indian specification motorcycles were selected and evaluated over the Euro 3 and world harmonized WMTC test cycles for regulated pollutants and particles. The objectives of the work were to examine the correlation between emissions on the WMTC and Euro 3 cycles, to compare those results with previous work completed before the European WMTC limits were set, to examine particulate emissions, and to then evaluate the durability of one machine.The correlation between Euro 3 and WMTC emissions results was used to extrapolate the appropriate level of WMTC limit values from the emissions limits on the Euro 3 test cycle. These WMTC extrapolated emissions limits were in line with the previous AECC motorcycle test program conducted in 2004 on Euro 2 motorcycles and also confirmed the appropriate level of the WMTC Euro 3 limits set in European Directive 2006/72/EC amending 97/24/EC.As a result of these 2004 and 2008 test campaigns, two of the selected motorcycles were tested in both Euro 2 and Euro 3 versions, allowing for…
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Heavy-duty Engine Particulate Emissions: Application of PMP Methodology to Measure Particle Number and Particulate Mass

Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst AISBL (AECC), Belgium-John May, Dirk Bosteels
Ricardo UK Ltd., UK-Chris Such, Andrew Nicol, Jon Andersson
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
During a test programme on a modern heavy-duty engine, measurements were made at engine-out and tailpipe of particle number and particulate mass using the draft heavy-duty inter-laboratory correlation exercise guide prepared by the UN-ECE Particle Measurement Programme (PMP)1. In addition to the PMP measurements, the elemental carbon content of the particulate matter from this programme was analysed using thermogravimetric analysis of separate filters.The particle number measurement system proved to provide a reliable and repeatable measurement procedure. Test results over a variety of operational cycles showed a reduction in particle numbers of some 3 orders of magnitude. Particle number emissions were of similar magnitude regardless of the test cycle. Background-corrected particulate mass emissions results using the partial flow dilution method showed emissions levels below 5mg/kWh over all the transient cycles tested.
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Particle Measurement Programme (PMP):Particle Size and Number Emissions Before, During and After Regeneration Events of a Euro 4 DPF Equipped Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle.

European Commission - DG JRC, IES, Transport and Air Quality Unit-Barouch Giechaskiel, Rafael Munoz-Bueno, Lauretta Rubino, Urbano Manfredi, Panagiota Dilara, Giovanni De Santi
Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Jon Andersson
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
By early 2007, all major manufacturers of light-duty diesel vehicles are marketing models equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). However, there is still a lack of understanding of the particles emitted when the DPF undergoes regeneration. This paper focuses on measuring particle emissions of a representative light-duty diesel vehicle equipped with DPF and employing a fuel-borne catalyst (FBC) to aid regeneration.Particulate Matter (PM) and non-volatile particle number emissions are measured throughout testing according to the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) proposals. In addition, an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) connected directly to the CVS is used to give real time size distributions of both volatile and non-volatile particles.The paper focuses on particle emissions during regenerating New European Driving Cycles (NEDCs). In the first regeneration event a nucleation mode with peak at high diameters (∼35 nm) can be observed due to the purge of stored volatile material that combines with unburnt fuel and lubricant. In subsequent speed changes or regeneration events a smaller peak can appear (∼12 nm) due to the smaller amount of released volatiles. Particle…
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Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Nucleation Mode Particle Emissions From a Euro III Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

BP-Hugh Preston, Chris Warrens, Peter Brett
Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Jon Andersson
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The impact of lubricant sulphur and phosphorus levels on the formation of nucleation mode particles was explored in a light duty diesel vehicle operating over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). All measurements were undertaken using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), sampling from a conventional Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) system. Rigorous sampling system and vehicle conditioning procedures were applied to eliminate oil carry-over and nanoparticle artifact formation.An initial vehicle selection process was undertaken on vehicles representing three fuel injection strategies, namely; distributor pump, common rail and unit injector. The vehicles met Euro III specifications and were all equipped with oxidation catalysts. Idle and low load stability were key requirements, since these conditions are the most significant in terms of their propensity to generate nucleation mode particles.The influence of fuel sulphur on nucleation particle generation is well documented and three fuels were tested at idle to confirm the chosen vehicle's response to fuel sulphur. Traditional European fuels exhibited strong nucleation modes, with the 50ppm S fuel showing ∼12% greater nucleation mode levels than the 10ppm…
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