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Anderson, James E.
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015.1
Published 2020-01-29 by SAE International in United States
Erratum
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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, James E. Anderson, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Soy Biodiesel Oxidation at Vehicle Fuel System Temperature: Influence of Aged Fuel on Fresh Fuel Degradation to Simulate Refueling

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company-James E. Anderson, Travis R. Collings, Sherry A. Mueller, James C. Ball, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0809
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study of the effects of partially-oxidized biodiesel fuel on the degradation of fresh fuel was performed. A blend of soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) in petroleum diesel fuel (30% v:v biodiesel, B30) was aged under accelerated conditions (90°C with aeration). Aging conditions focused on three different degrees of initial oxidation: 1) reduced oxidation stability (Rancimat induction period, IP); 2) high peroxide values (PV); and 3) high total acid number (TAN). Aged B30 fuel was mixed with fresh B30 fuel at two concentrations (10% and 30% m:m) and degradation of the mixtures at the above aging conditions was monitored for IP, PV, TAN, and FAME composition. Greater content of aged fuel carryover (30% m:m) corresponded to stronger effects. Oxidation stability was most adversely affected by high peroxide concentration (Scenario 2), while peroxide content was most reduced for the high TAN scenario (Scenario 3). However, changes in TAN and FAME composition were modest with all four scenarios reaching a plateau in TAN formation at similar times and FAME concentrations showing similar declines. The…
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A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

Ford Motor Company-Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson, Michael H. Shelby
University of Melbourne-Zhenbiao Zhou, Yi Yang, Michael Brear, Joshua Lacey
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.This paper first examines four different methods for determining K, using literature results from a modern SI engine operating with direct injection (DI), port fuel injection (PFI) and homogeneous, upstream fuel injection (UFI). The test fuels were ethanol-gasoline blends spanning a wide range of RON and MON, together with isooctane as a reference. The…
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Gasoline Anti-Knock Index Effects on Vehicle Net Power at High Altitude

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Asim Iqbal
Ford Motor Company-Thomas G. Leone, James E. Anderson
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0801
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities to improve vehicle fuel economy, while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (antiknock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the U.S., 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states.The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude (1660 m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at transient and stabilized full power operation. Five vehicles were tested using 85 and 87 AKI fuels. Turbocharging, natural aspiration, gasoline direct injection, and port fuel injection technologies were evaluated using this group of vehicles.All vehicles in the study had some reduction in net power when operated on 85 AKI fuel compared to 87 AKI fuel. Vehicles with turbocharged…
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Impact of Ester Structures on the Soot Characteristics and Soot Oxidative Reactivity of Biodiesel

Czech Technical Univ.-Eduardo J. Barrientos
Ford Motor Co.-Matti M. Maricq, James E. Anderson
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A study and analysis of the relation of biodiesel chemical structures to the resulting soot characteristics and soot oxidative reactivity is presented. Soot samples generated from combustion of various methyl esters, alkanes, biodiesel and diesel fuels in laminar co-flow diffusion flames are analyzed to evaluate the impact of fuel-bound oxygen in fatty acid esters on soot oxidation behavior.Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of soot samples collected from diffusion flames show that chemical variations in biodiesel ester compounds have an impact on soot oxidative reactivity and soot characteristics in contrast to findings reported previously in the literature. Soot derived from methyl esters with shorter alkyl chains, such as methyl butyrate and methyl hexanoate, exhibit higher reactivity than those with longer carbon chain lengths, such as methyl oleate, which are more representative of biodiesel fuels. Structural analysis is performed via Raman spectroscopy on methyl esters derived soot samples and compared with n-dodecane derived soot. These data are consistent with literature reports that lower structural order enhances reactivity. Soot reactivity analysis of methyl esters with different types of carbon-carbon bonds…
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Modeling of Trace Knock in a Modern SI Engine Fuelled by Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

Ford Motor Co.-Thomas Leone, James E. Anderson
University of Melbourne-Hao Yuan, Tien Mun Foong, Zhongyuan Chen, Yi Yang, Michael Brear
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a numerical study of trace knocking combustion of ethanol/gasoline blends in a modern, single cylinder SI engine. Results are compared to experimental data from a prior, published work [1]. The engine is modeled using GT-Power and a two-zone combustion model containing detailed kinetic models. The two zone model uses a gasoline surrogate model [2] combined with a sub-model for nitric oxide (NO) [3] to simulate end-gas autoignition.Upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI) and direct injection (DI) are modeled and compared to characterize ethanol's low autoignition reactivity and high charge cooling effects. Three ethanol/gasoline blends are studied: E0, E20, and E50. The modeled and experimental results demonstrate some systematic differences in the spark timing for trace knock across all three fuels, but the relative trends with engine load and ethanol content are consistent. Possible reasons causing the differences are discussed. Finally, the influence of NO on autoignition is investigated, yielding results that are consistent with prior works. Overall, the same, two-zone kinetic model appears to capture both the UFI and DI autoignition similarly well.…
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Issues with T50 and T90 as Match Criteria for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Robert A. Stein
Ford Motor Co.-James E. Anderson, Timothy J. Wallington
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9080
Published 2014-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Modification of gasoline blendstock composition in preparing ethanol-gasoline blends has a significant impact on vehicle exhaust emissions. In “splash” blending the blendstock is fixed, ethanol-gasoline blend compositions are clearly defined, and effects on emissions are relatively straightforward to interpret. In “match” blending the blendstock composition is modified for each ethanol-gasoline blend to match one or more fuel properties. The effects on emissions depend on which fuel properties are matched and what modifications are made, making trends difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that exclusive use of a match blending approach has fundamental flaws.For typical gasolines without ethanol, the distillation profile is a smooth, roughly linear relationship of temperature vs. percent fuel distilled. Hence the use of three points on the curve (T10, T50, and T90, defined as the 10%v, 50%v, and 90%v evaporated temperatures) has been sufficient to define their volatility-related behavior in engines. These parameters are commonly “matched” in studies intended to evaluate fuel composition effects on emissions. For ethanol-gasoline blends, higher boiling-point hydrocarbons must be added to match…
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Effects of Oxygenated Fuels on Combustion and Soot Formation/Oxidation Processes

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Co.-Eric Kurtz, James E. Anderson
Sandia National Laboratories-Julien Manin, Scott Skeen, Lyle Pickett
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2657
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The Leaner Lifted-Flame Combustion (LLFC) strategy offers a possible alternative to low temperature combustion or other globally lean, premixed operation strategies to reduce soot directly in the flame, while maintaining mixing-controlled combustion. Adjustments to fuel properties, especially fuel oxygenation, have been reported to have potentially beneficial effects for LLFC applications. Six fuels were selected or blended based on cetane number, oxygen content, molecular structure, and the presence of an aromatic hydrocarbon. The experiments compared different fuel blends made of n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, methyl decanoate, tri-propylene glycol monomethyl ether (TPGME), as well as m-xylene. Several optical diagnostics have been used simultaneously to monitor the ignition, combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes from spray flames in a constant-volume combustion vessel. Ignition delay times, lift-off lengths and soot KL extinction levels for the six fuels have been measured at in-cylinder conditions relevant to modern diesel engines.The results show that blending an alkane with an oxygenated fuel of similar cetane number has no noticeable impact on ignition delay while only slightly affecting lift-off length, with longer flame stabilization distance for blends…
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Effects of Fuel Octane Rating and Ethanol Content on Knock, Fuel Economy, and CO2 for a Turbocharged DI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc.-Robert A. Stein
Ford Motor Co.-Thomas G. Leone, Edward D. Olin, James E. Anderson, Hosuk H. Jung, Michael H. Shelby
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1228
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing fuels having different octane ratings and ethanol content in a Ford 3.5L direct injection turbocharged (EcoBoost) engine at three compression ratios (CRs). The fuels included midlevel ethanol “splash blend” and “octane-matched blend” fuels, E10-98RON (U.S. premium), and E85-108RON.For the splash blends, denatured ethanol was added to E10-91RON, which resulted in E20-96RON and E30-101 RON. For the octane-matched blends, gasoline blendstocks were formulated to maintain constant RON and MON for E10, E20, and E30.The match blend E20-91RON and E30-91RON showed no knock benefit compared to the baseline E10-91RON fuel. However, the splash blend E20-96RON and E10-98RON enabled 11.9:1 CR with similar knock performance to E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. The splash blend E30-101RON enabled 13:1 CR with better knock performance than E10-91RON at 10:1 CR. As expected, E85-108RON exhibited dramatically better knock performance than E30-101RON.The data were used in a vehicle simulation of a 3.5L EcoBoost F150, which showed that E20-96 RON at 11.9:1 CR offers 5% improvement in tailpipe CO2 emissions and 1% improvement in miles per gallon (MPG) fuel…
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