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Fracture Characterization of Automotive Alloys in Shear Loading

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Magna International-Timothy Skszek
University Of Waterloo-Armin Abedini, Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0528
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two different shear sample geometries were employed to investigate the elastoplastic and failure behaviour of three automotive alloy rolled sheets; a highly anisotropic magnesium alloy (ZEK100) and two relatively isotropic dual phase steels (DP600 and DP780). The performance of the so-called butterfly type specimen (Mohr and Henn 2007, Dunand and Mohr 2011) was evaluated at quasi-static conditions along with the shear geometry of Peirs et al. (2012) using in situ 3-D digital image correlation (DIC) strain measurement techniques. It was shown that both test geometries resulted in similar trends of the load-displacement response; however, the fracture strains obtained using the butterfly specimen were lower for the ZEK100 and DP780. It was demonstrated that the ZEK100 exhibits strong anisotropy in terms of the shear work hardening rate and failure strain. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fracture surfaces revealed that both shear specimens led to a smooth fracture surface compared to the dimpled fracture surface obtained in uniaxial tension.
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Development of a Phenomenological Dual-Fuel Natural Gas Diesel Engine Simulation and Its Use for Analysis of Transient Operations

SAE International Journal of Engines

Clemson Univ.-Shuonan Xu, David Anderson, Amrit Singh, Mark Hoffman, Robert Prucka, Zoran Filipi
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2546
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Abundant supply of Natural Gas (NG) is U.S. and cost-advantage compared to diesel provides impetus for engineers to use alternative gaseous fuels in existing engines. Dual-fuel natural gas engines preserve diesel thermal efficiencies and reduce fuel cost without imposing consumer range anxiety. Increased complexity poses several challenges, including the transient response of an engine with direct injection of diesel fuel and injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) upstream of the intake manifold. A 1-D simulation of a Cummins ISX heavy duty, dual-fuel, natural gas-diesel engine is developed in the GT-Power environment to study and improve transient response. The simulated Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT)behavior, intake and exhaust geometry, valve timings and injector models are validated through experimental results. A triple Wiebe combustion model is applied to characterize experimental combustion results for both diesel and dual-fuel operation. The ignition delay and injection timing are determined through an iterative calculation based on Start of Combustion (SOC) and a predictive ignition delay correlation. The simulation was subsequently utilized to characterize power delivery delays experienced by the driver during transient…
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An Evaluation of Knock Determination Techniques for Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engines

Clemson Univ.-Amrit Singh, David Anderson, Mark Hoffman, Zoran Filipi, Robert Prucka
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated. A heavy duty diesel engine with the capability of running both natural gas and diesel is operated at points where knock occurs and the cylinder pressure traces are recorded. Constants of the Arrhenius function for dual-fuel operation are determined…
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Effect of Stress Triaxiality on the Constitutive Response of Super Vacuum Die Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy

Magna Intl Inc.-Tim Skszek
University of Waterloo-Dan Kraehling, David Anderson, Michael Worswick
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The effect of stress triaxiality on failure strain in as-cast magnesium alloy AM60B is examined. Experiments using one uniaxial and two notched tensile geometries were used to study the effect of stress triaxiality on the quasi-static constitutive response of super vacuum die cast AM60B castings. For all tests, local strains, failure location and specimen elongation were tracked using two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The uniaxial specimens were tested in two orthogonal directions to determine the anisotropy of the casting. Finite element models were developed to estimate effective plastic strain histories and stress state (triaxiality) as a function of notch severity. It was found that there is minimal, if any, anisotropy present in AM60B castings. Higher stress triaxiality levels caused increases in maximum stress and decreases in elongation and local effective plastic strain at failure. This data will serve as the basis for the development of a damage-based constitutive model.
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Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg
US Dept of Energy-Lee Slezak, David Anderson
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles.At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures. These increases in energy consumption depend on the air-conditioning system type, powertrain architecture, powertrain capabilities and drive patterns. The more efficient the powertrain, the larger the impact of climate control (heating or…
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Predicting Failure during Sheared Edge Stretching Using a Damage-Based Model for the Shear-Affected Zone

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

University of Waterloo-Cliff Butcher, David Anderson, Michael Worswick
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1166
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Hole expansion of a dual phase steel, DP600, was numerically investigated using a damage-based constitutive law to predict failure. The parameters governing void nucleation and coalescence were identified from an extensive review of the x-ray micro-tomography data available in the literature to ensure physically-sound predictions of damage evolution. A recently proposed technique to experimentally quantify work-hardening and damage in the shear-affected zone is incorporated into the damage model to enable fracture predictions of holes with sheared edges. Finite-element simulations of a hole expansion test with a conical punch were performed for both a punched and milled hole edge condition and the predicted hole expansion ratios are in very good agreement with the experiment values reported by several researchers.
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In-Cylinder Thermodynamic Analysis for Performance Engine Development

Clemson Univ-David Anderson, Justin Callies, Baitao Xiao, Robert Gary Prucka
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This research describes several data processing and analysis techniques that can be used to quantify indicated torque losses associated with in-cylinder thermodynamic events. The detailed thermodynamic techniques are intended to aid the development of performance engines under high-load conditions. This study investigates potential IMEP gains that could be made to an engine based on evaluating cylinder and manifold pressure data collected during wide-open-throttle operation. Examination of the data can guide engine design changes by exposing inefficiencies that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. Examples of calibration adjustments and physical intake and exhaust manifold design changes are also presented to validate the data analysis techniques presented. The research data sets were recorded using a 5.3L V8 engine in conjunction with a highly-controlled transient dynamometer. Fast-response pressure transducers were used to measure crank angle resolved cylinder and manifold pressure over continuous engine speed sweeps. Data evaluation software was developed and used to analyze the data after they were collected. Through the evaluation of many engine parameters including: indicated torque, intake and exhaust manifold tuning, gas exchange, turbulence intensity,…
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BLOCCS-A Linear ASIC Capability for the Automotive Industry

National Semiconductor (UK)-David Anderson
Published 1989-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A new design methodology, termed BLOCCS - (a Bipolar Library Of Characterised CellS), provides National Semiconductor with the ability to produce semi-custom Analog circuit designs that can be evaluated and achieve full production in less than one third the normal product development cycle time.Utilising a cell library specifically designed to handle the demanding voltage and temperature extremes encountered in automotive applications, ASIC's can be produced to withstand 80 Volt load-dump transients, reverse battery connection, and up to 3 Amp current levels as required.This paper describes the BLOCCS design concept and illustrates a number of typical applications in the power control and car radio sectors.
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