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Intrinsic Wear Behavior of Tire Tread/Carcass Composites

Wright Lab.-M. D. Chawla, P. M. Wagner
PPG Industries-W. H. Waddell
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The intrinsic wear behavior of tire tread materials bonded to carcass plies was examined under static footprint load and static axial pretension. Relying on a specially designed test apparatus, the abrasion action was induced with constantly changing directions and cyclic change of sliding speed. A series of wear tests was performed for parametric studies. The morphology of resulting wear surfaces was examined to understand wear mechanisms. The wear process of tire tread materials consisted of a mechanical mode of abrasion when sliding speed was below a critical level. For this range of sliding speed, the extent of tread wear was found to be simply dependent on the cumulative number of abrading head revolution which reflects the total sliding distance. The relationship between the amount of wear and cumulative number of abrading head revolution deviated from linearity when the rotational frequency of abrading head reached a critical level. Above the critical level, because of the contamination of abrasive surface induced by excessive heat build-up, the cumulative amount of wear could be no longer dependent upon the…
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Demonstration of an Electrically Actuated Brake with Torque Feedback

Wright Lab.-Igors Skriblis
McDonnell Douglas Corp.-Mary Geiger, William Macy
Published 1996-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Air Force has recognized the need for an alternative to the conventional hydraulic brake system. Hazards associated with fires and the maintenance required for a hydraulically actuated system are the principal drawbacks of hydraulic brake systems. In addition, an alternative brake system will be required to support a “More Electric” aircraft of the future.The solution to these problems was provided by the “Electrically Actuated Brake Technology (ELABRAT)” program, a three year program sponsored by the Flight Dynamics Directorate at Wright Patterson AFB. ELABRAT developed and demonstrated an Electromechanically Actuated (EMA) brake system to replace the existing hydraulically actuated piston housing and associated hydraulic control hardware.
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Distributed interactive simulation and the war breaker zen regard simulation, a participant's perspective

Wright Lab.-K. W. Scribner
  • Technical Paper
  • 1994-11-0135
Published 1994-11-16 by Royal Aeronautical Society in United Kingdom
The United States Air Force's Wright Laboratory was a major participant in the recent U.S. Government's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) War Breaker Zen Regard simulation. Wright Laboratory ""flew"" two manned F-15E strike aircraft and eight MiG-29 threat aircraft (four manned and four computer-generated) during the simulation. ARPA sponsored the large-scale distributed interactive simulation, known as Zen Regard, to simulate a Desert Storm-like battle in which new technology to search and destroy time critical targets (such as Scud missiles) could be evaluated. This world-record simulation used both constructive (computer-generated) and Man-In-The-Loop (MITL) simulators as the battle combatants - at one time over 5400 entities were on the network (as well as voice and video communications). During the 14 two-hour exercises, Wright Laboratory scored 118 air ""kills"" and 18 ground ""kills"". This paper discusses the lessons learned concerning the use of MITL high-performance jet aircraft models coupled with high-fidelity missile models over a distributed simulation network using the Distributed Interactive Simulation protocol 2.03 (IEEE Standard 1278)
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Laser Velocimetry in the Supersonic Regime: Advancements, Limitations, and Outlook

Wright Lab.-Mark S. Maurice, Linda G. Smith, George L. Seibert, Charles Tyler, C. Dean Miller
Published 1993-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Laser Velocimetry (LV) is often utilized as an off-the-shelf nonintrusive measurement technique for low speed, steady state flows. However, in complex, supersonic flows, the application of LV becomes highly specialized. Setups must often contend with limited optical access, poor signal-to-noise ratios, and limited tunnel run times. Furthermore, seeding particles must survive large ranges of flow temperatures and pressures, and extensive data analysis and interpretation are required to ascertain whether measured particle velocities are representative of the fluid flow. Several examples of LV studies in the supersonic regime demonstrate recent advancements and the current state-of-the-art of this measurement technique. Results are included from three wind tunnel facilities, operating at freestream Mach numbers of 1.9, 3, and 6, and track an evolution of applications from flat plate boundary layers to the complex flowfield of a supersonic inlet. Results demonstrate that further development of collection, seeding and analysis techniques will continue to extend the range of LV applications and measurement statistics, but the overall limiting factor will continue to be the ability of LV seed to model the…
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Concepts for Aircraft Subsystem Integration

Wright Lab.-Alan H. Burkhard, William L. Haskin
Published 1993-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The Air Force has an initiative entitled, Subsystem Integration Technology (SUIT) to develop and demonstrate integration technology as applied to the traditional aircraft utility subsystems. Utility subsystems perform functions such as auxiliary power generation, environmental control, and fuel management. Commonly these different subsystems are developed independently and then interfaced when building a particular flight vehicle. The SUIT program considers all functions accomplished by the traditional utility subsystems to be responsibilities of a single entity called a utility suite. This suite is designed with overall vehicle level performance objectives rather than trying to maximize the performance of individual functions and is not bound to maintaining the traditional allocation of functions among the hardware labeled as fuel management, environmental control, or secondary power. The SUIT program has the objective of developing and demonstrating design data and assessment capability for a truly integrated subsystem suite. Novel concepts for a utility suite have emerged from recently completed concept studies conducted by several contractor teams. These concept studies showed that significant flight vehicle performance benefits appear to be possible via…
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On-Demand Reusable Space Launch Systems That Use In-Flight Oxidizer Collection

Wright Lab.-John L. Leingang, Louis R. Carreiro, Lourdes Q. Maurice
Published 1993-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes air breathing reusable space launch vehicle concepts intended to provide very rapid response launch of 10,000 lb polar orbit payloads (or approximately 20,000 lbs Eastern). The vehicles are two-stage, with the first stage employing turboramjet propulsion and the second stage using rockets. Liquid oxygen (LOX) for the second stage is collected during first stage ascent using technologies from the original Aerospaceplane work along with recent improvements. No LOX is carried at takeoff, thus eliminating the need for LOX ground servicing facilities.A dual fuel approach, liquid hydrogen and ambient storable hydrocarbon fuel (LH2 and JP), uses JP fuel for first stage acceleration and second stage rocket ascent. LH2 in the amount just sufficient to condense and collect second stage LOX, is the only cryogenic fluid that is loaded on the vehicle at takeoff. Another concept, which eliminates all cryogenics at takeoff, uses the heat sink of conventional JP fuel and water coolant to drive a lightweight adaptation of the commercial LOX production process.Both of the concepts are believed to permit true launch-on-demand capability…
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Heat Transfer in Two-Dimensional Jet Impingement of a Dielectric Liquid on to a Flat Plate With Uniform Heat Flux

Wright Lab.-J. E. Beam
University of Kentucky-C. B. Gil, G. S. Su, L. C. Chow
Published 1992-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Experiments were performed to investigate the convective heat transfer from a two-dimensional slot jet of the dielectric liquid PAO to a smooth 15.2 mm by 9.5 mm film resistor surface. The effects of nozzle width, nozzle-to-plate distance, impinging velocity, and liquid properties have been examined. Heat transfer correlations and a discussion of relative parametric effects are provided.
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Advanced Diagnostics Research for High Speed Aerodynamic Testing

Wright Lab.-Linda G. Smith, Charles Tyler, John D. Schmisseur
Published 1992-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Laser induced fluorescence, Rayleigh scattering, chemiluminescence, phase shift holographic interferometry, and optically smart surfaces are techniques being developed for use in the Wright Laboratory supersonic wind tunnels. These advanced diagnostics techniques will be used to provide quantitative point measurements of density, pressure, temperature, velocity, and surface strain for use in basic aerodynamic research and validation of computational fluid dynamics codes.
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Photovoltaic Array Space Power Flight Experiment Plus Diagnostics (PASP+) Modules

Wright Lab.-William T. Cooley, Steven F. Adams, Kitt C. Reinhardt
NASA Lewis Research Center-Michael F. Piszczor
Published 1992-08-03 by SAE International in United States
The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics flight experiment (PASP+) subsumes twelve solar array modules which represent the state of the art in the space photovoltaic array industry. Each of the twelve modules individually feature specific photovoltaic technologies such as advanced semiconductor materials, multi-bandgap structures, lightweight array designs, advanced interconnect technologies, or concentrator array designs. This paper will describe each module in detail including the configuration, components, materials, anticipated on orbit performance, and some of the aspects of each array technology. The layout of each module and the photovoltaic cell or array cross section will be presented graphically. A discussion on the environmental constraints and materials selection will be included as well as a delineation of the differences between the modules and the baseline array configuration in its intended application.
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Design of a Hydrogen Test Facility

Wright Lab.-Micheal J. Morgan, Jerry E. Beam
University of Kentucky-Maninder S. Sehmbey, Pais Martin R., Louis C. Chow, O. John Hahn
Published 1992-08-03 by SAE International in United States
The Air Force has sponsored a program at the University of Kentucky which will lead to a better understanding of the thermal and fluid instabilities during blowdown of supercritical fluids at cryogenic temperatures. An integral part of that program is the design and construction of a hydrogen test facility. This paper describes the design specifications and construction of that hydrogen test facility. This facility will be capable of providing supercritical hydrogen at 30 bars and 35 K at a maximum flow rate of 0.1 kg/s for 90 seconds. Also presented here is an extension of this facility to accommodate the use of supercritical helium.
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