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Flight Testing The Wright Typhoon Turbo-Prop

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-R. R. TEMPLETON, M. P. CERVINO
Published 1949-01-01 by SAE International in United States
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ENGINE COMPOUNDING FOR POWER AND EFFICIENCY

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-E. F. Pierce, H. W. Welsh
Published 1948-01-01 by SAE International in United States
POWER recovery from the exhaust gases of aircraft reciprocating engines is analyzed both for the cases where blowdown from each cylinder is used separately and for the cases where it is collected in an exhaust manifold and discharged in an essentially steady flow stream.Performance and design considerations indicate that the blowdown system offers more advantages for compounding than the steady flow system.
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COLD-STARTING CHARACTERISTICS of the CYCLONE ENGINE

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-G. A. BLEYLE
Published 1947-01-01 by SAE International in United States
BOTH cranking torque characteristics and starting characteristics of three types of Wright Cyclone engines were studied by the author.Torque can be minimized, he found, by keeping both oil viscosity and the speed at which the engine is cranked as low as safety will permit.Throttle quadrants may be marked with a “start” position, he says, because there exists an optimum setting good throughout the temperature range.Investigations of cranking speeds and priming systems are reported.
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BMW-003 TURBO-JET ENGINE Compared with the JUMO 004

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-W. G. LUNDQUIST, R. W. COLE
Published 1946-01-01 by SAE International in United States
PERFORMANCE characteristics of the German BMW-003 and Jumo 004 engines as a whole, as well as of their principal parts, are presented here.This paper, the authors point out, is not the result of experimental determinations in this country, but is rather a résumé of data obtained from German sources.The discussion is divided as follows: 1. Performance of complete machine. 2. Compressor performance. 3. Combustion-chamber performance. 4. Turbine performance. 5. Miscellaneous operating characteristics.
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Factors in AERATION and DEAERATION of AIRCRAFT-ENGINE OIL

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-W. L. WEEKS
Published 1946-01-01 by SAE International in United States
AERATION of aircraft-engine oil has spasmodically caused trouble with pressure regulation for several years.A protracted investigation and test program by Wright Aeronautical Corp., though still unfinished, shows by laboratory, test stand, and flight test, that some facts well known for years have been neglected and aeration of oil therefore invited while deaeration has been definitely restrained.A review of basic facts and known methods indicates that if they were taken into account in design and service operation, we could go a long way in reducing trouble with oil pressure regulation due to entrained air, according to Mr. Weeks.The engine itself, obviously, is the main source of entrained air, but the scavenge pumps are not solely responsible, the author reports. Oil fed to them from gear trains contains 6-20% very finely divided air.Entrained air is, he concludes, inherent to engines with integral reduction drive gears, supercharger drives, and multiple accessory drives.In facing this fact, Mr. Weeks states further, we cannot continue to handicap deaeration with low operating oil temperatures and localized oil flow through tanks as imposed…
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TESTING OF HIGHLY LOADED SLEEVE BEARINGS

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-J. PALSULICH, R. W. BLAIR
Published 1946-01-01 by SAE International in United States
THIS paper describes a test program being conducted for the evaluation of highly loaded sleeve bearings. It lists the specific properties of bearings being investigated and describes in detail the test equipment and procedure used. Curves and tables are included showing the test results obtained.The usefulness of laboratory test rigs in accelerating the development of new bearing materials and designs is stressed by the authors, who point out that the labor and expense involved in testing bearings is greatly reduced by the use of such rigs.
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Fuel Injection for the Aircraft Engine

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-F. J. WIEGAND, D. W. MEADOR
Published 1945-01-01 by SAE International in United States
THE controversy of fuel injection versus carburetion for aircraft engines has resulted in many papers being written, some of which claimed to prove the superiority of one system, some, the other, and some, that neither system was any good.Such variety of opinions resulted from the fact that it is very difficult to obtain in the same engine satisfactory operating characteristics with both carburetion and fuel injection.These authors, however, now have fuel-injection equipment that is completely interchangeable with carburetion equipment.In this paper, consequently, they go far toward settling the controversy, for they present factual data on engine performance with carburetion and fuel injection applied to the same basic engine.
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Prediction of Engine Cooling Requirements

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-WILLIAM M. S. RICHARDS, FRANK H. ERDMAN
Published 1945-01-01 by SAE International in United States
THE difficulty encountered while attempting to correlate altitude cooling requirements with sea-level performance led to the resumption of intensive study of the cooling correlation problem by the Wright Aeronautical Corp. early in 1942.Any correlation of this nature endeavors to establish the relation between engine operating conditions, cylinder-head temperature, pressure drop across the engine, pressure and temperature of the cooling air, cooling air consumption, and heat rejection to the cooling air.A correlation method based on the density of the air as it leaves the fin passages, which involves the temperature rise and pressure drop of the cooling air, has been developed. A graphical solution of the equations has been evolved which requires a knowledge of only the entering air conditions to enable one to solve for all the above cooling requirements. To demonstrate this method, it has been applied to a specific Wright engine model, based on extensive testing to obtain the necessary constants.
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MOTION ANALYSIS by Means of HIGH-SPEED PHOTOGRAPHY

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-H. D. JACKES
Published 1944-01-01 by SAE International in United States
IN analyzing the operation of aircraft-engine parts, the high-speed motion picture camera has many advantages over the older methods, which involved the use of vibration indicators, stroboscopes, and strain gages.High-speed motion picture studies have the advantages of forming a permanent record and of accurately evaluating transient conditions.Many subjects have been studied by means of high-speed motion pictures, some of which are here shown and discussed by Mr. Jackes.
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ENGINE COOLING FAN Theory and Practice

Wright Aeronautical Corp.-KENNETH CAMPBELL
Published 1944-01-01 by SAE International in United States
WHEN operating the larger engine installations under marginal cooling conditions, considerable horsepower per nacelle is frequently expended solely on cooling instead of on improved airplane performance. The numerous development opportunities for reducing cooling drag are discussed briefly by Mr. Campbell.Cooling fans offer performance gains which, in many cases, are startling to the uninitiated, yet which can be had today for the asking.Determination of the degree of fan boost required, which is relatively small, and methods of calculating the net thrust horsepower gain to be had from fan application are provided by the author, who also discusses briefly the question of fan controllability requirements.Finally, Mr. Campbell analyzes the published Schicht and Wattendorf contributions to blade design for higher pressure coefficient fans, and the application of these principles to a number of cooling fan projects.
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