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CFD Investigation of the Effects of Gas’ Methane Number on the Performance of a Heavy-Duty Natural-Gas Spark-Ignition Engine

West Virginia Univ.-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Dumitrescu
Universita degli Studi di Perugia-Luca Ambrogi, Michele Battistoni, Lorenzo Gasbarro
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas (NG) is an alternative fuel for spark-ignition engines. In addition to its cleaner combustion, recent breakthroughs in drilling technologies increased its availability and lowered its cost. NG consists of mostly methane, but it also contains heavier hydrocarbons and inert diluents, the levels of which vary substantially with geographical source, time of the year and treatments applied during production or transportation. To investigate the effects of NG composition on engine performance and emissions, a 3D CFD model of a heavy-duty diesel engine retrofitted to NG spark ignition simulated lean-combustion engine operation at low speed and medium load conditions. The work investigated three NG blends with similar lower heating value (i.e., similar energy density) but different Methane Number (MN). The results indicated that a lower MN increased flame propagation speed and thus increased in-cylinder pressure and indicated mean effective pressure. In addition, a low MN increased the thermal efficiency despite the higher heat transfer to the surroundings. Also, a higher MN reduced the nitrogen-oxides emissions but increased unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) emissions. Moreover, while UHC emissions…
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Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing

West Virginia Univ.-Alberto Boretti
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-185
Published 2018-08-01 by SAE International in United States
Racing continues to be the singular, preeminent source of powertrain development for automakers worldwide. Engineering teams rely on motorsports for the latest prototype testing and research. Endurance racing provides the harshest and most illuminating stage for system design validation of any motorsport competition. While advancements throughout the 20th Century brought about dramatic increases in engine power output, the latest developments from endurance racing may be more impactful for fuel efficiency improvements. Hybrid powertrains are a critical area of research for automakers and are being tested on the toughest of scales. Prototype Powertrain in Motorsport Endurance Racing brings together ten vital SAE technical papers and SAE Automotive Engineering magazine articles surrounding the advancements of hybrid powertrains in motorsports. The book also includes a history of endurance racing from the World Sports Car Championship through the 24 Hours of Le Mans to the World Endurance Championship written by the author. The goal is to provide the latest concepts being researched and tested on hybrid systems that will influence vehicles for years to come - appealing to engineers…
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The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine After “Diesel-Gate”

West Virginia Univ.-Alberto Boretti
Published 2017-07-10 by SAE International in United States
The paper captures the recent events in relation with the Volkswagen (VW) Emissions Scandal and addresses the impact of this event on the future of power train development. The paper analyses the impact on the perspectives of the internal combustion engine, the battery based electric car and the hydrogen based technology. The operation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), VW and the United States prosecutor, sparked by the action of the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) is forcing the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) towards everything but rationale immediate transition to the battery based electric mobility. This transition voids the value of any improvement of the internal combustion engine (ICE), especially in the lean burn, compression ignition (CI) technology, and of a better hybridization of powertrains, both options that have much better short term perspectives than the battery based electric car. This transition similarly narrows the future perspectives of the hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2-ICE) or the hydrogen fuel cell (H2-FC) electric mobility, solutions equally competitive vs. the battery based electric car. As…
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Guidance and Range Extension Control System for a Hybrid Projectile

West Virginia Univ.-Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close, Wade Huebsch
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
A Hybrid Projectile (HP) is a ballistically launched round that transforms into an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) at a designated point during flight. Aerodynamic control surfaces and associated control laws were sought that would extend the projectile's range using body lift and include guidance for a selected point of impact. Several challenges were encountered during the modification of an existing projectile, in this case a 40mm round, to achieve range extension and controllability. The control surfaces must be designed to allow for de-spin, controllability, and natural static stability. Also, a control system with laws and guidance relationships between heading, pitch or glide rate, and the associated aerodynamic surface movements needed to be developed. The designed aerodynamic surfaces, external ballistics, and control methods developed were modeled in a projectile flight simulator built in MATLAB. The base model was an M781 practice round and the aerodynamic coefficients and mass data were found in literature. Projected performance results show that developed tail design and control laws were able to maneuver the designed HP up to 2,500 diameters off…
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Roll and Pitch Produced During an Uneven Wing Deployment of a Hybrid Projectile

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

West Virginia Univ.-Jay Wilhelm, Joseph Close
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2112
Published 2014-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second. It is imperative to ensure that an HP wing deployment mechanism must be designed to deploy as evenly as possible.
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Investigation of On-Road Crosswinds on Interstate Tractor-Trailer Aerodynamic Efficiency

West Virginia Univ.-Bharadwaj Sathiamoorthy, Matthew C. Robinson, Evan Fedorko, Nigel Clark
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty tractor-trailers under freeway operations consume about 65% of the total engine shaft energy to overcome aerodynamic drag force. Vehicles are exposed to on-road crosswinds which cause change in pressure distribution with a relative wind speed and yaw angle. The objective of this study was to analyze the drag losses as a function of on-road wind conditions, on-road vehicle position and trajectory. Using coefficient of drag (CD) data available from a study conducted at NASA Ames, Geographical Information Systems model, time-varying weather data and road data, a generic model was built to identify the yaw angles and the relative magnitude of wind speed on a given route over a given time period. A region-based analysis was conducted for a study on interstate trucking operation by employing I-79 running through West Virginia as a case study by initiating a run starting at 12am, 03/03/2012 out to 12am, 03/05/2012. Results showed that vehicles which travelled the route on 03/04/2012 after 2pm were subjected to higher yaw angles (9 - 14 degrees) compared to vehicles travelling between…
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Finite Element Analysis of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

West Virginia Univ.-Gergis W. William, Samir Shoukry, Jacky Prucz, Thomas Evans
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2477
Published 2013-09-24 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall. The research work presented in this paper reveals that the continuously changing angle orientation and local laminate thickness in the dome regions can be modeled by a unique approach that utilizes suitable…
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Comparison of Particulate Matter Emissions from Different Aftertreatment Technologies in a Wind Tunnel

West Virginia Univ.-Daniele Littera, Alessandro Cozzolini, Marc Besch, Mario Velardi, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel after treatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. Those improvements generally regard the use of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and lately also the use of Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) systems along with improved engine control strategies for reduction of NOx emissions from these engines. Studies that have led to these technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environment and are not representative of real world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In addition, formation and evolution of PM from these engines are extremely sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process. In light of this, the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy duty diesel vehicle operated inside a subsonic environmental wind tunnel can give us an idea of the dilution process and the representative emissions of the real world scenario.The subsonic environmental wind tunnel used for this study is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. It was specifically…
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Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

West Virginia Univ.-Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniele Littera, Ross Ryskamp, John Smallwood, Marc Besch, Mario Velardi, Hemanth Kappanna, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel. Traditionally, natural gas engines are operated over an Otto-cycle employing a stoichiometric combustion strategy, and using sparkplugs to ignite the fuel and a three-way catalyst (TWC) to mitigate emissions of NOx, CO as well as HC. Alternatively, combusting NG in a Diesel engine would result in higher combustion efficiencies, inherent to the Diesel-cycle, thus, reduce fuel consumption and therefore,…
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions of MY 2010 Advanced Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Measured Over a Cross-Continental Trip of USA

West Virginia Univ.-Hemanth Kappanna, Marc Besch, Arvind Thiruvengadam, Oscar Delgado, Alessandro Cozzolini, Daniel Carder, Mridul Gautam
California Air Resources Board-Shaohua Hu, Tao Huai, Alberto Ayala
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The study was aimed at assessing in-use emissions of a USEPA 2010 emissions-compliant heavy-duty diesel vehicle powered by a model year (MY) 2011 engine using West Virginia University's Transportable Emissions Measurement System (TEMS). The TEMS houses full-scale CVS dilution tunnel and laboratory-grade emissions measurement systems, which are compliant with the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Title 40, Part 1065 [1] emissions measurement specifications. One of the specific objectives of the study, and the key topic of this paper, is the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO2, N2O and CH4) along with ammonia (NH3) and regulated emissions during real-world operation of a long-haul heavy-duty vehicle, equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and urea based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system for PM and NOx reduction, respectively.The TEMS was additionally outfitted with an MKS MultiGas® 2030-HS high-speed FTIR to quantify NH3 and N2O, along with other compounds of interest, at a frequency of 5 Hz. One of the salient features of the study is the continuous measurement of N2O and NH3 concentrations at high temporal…
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