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Analysis of Accelerator Hardware for Autonomous Vehicles and Data Centers

Wayne State University-Kyle W. Brown
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The development of Autonomous Vehicles (AV) has become a popular subject in academia and industry. Companies and cities are quickly realizing the opportunities that AVs can generate from Mobility as a Service to traffic safety. The challenges for the infrastructure to incorporate AVs as a viable transportation source are immense, from an outdated infrastructure to radical Smart-City designs. Historically, the transportation infrastructure has faced challenges from underfunding, economics, and much needed improvements. With the current infrastructure unable to support many of the services required by a fully connected network, a transformation will be necessary to meet growing mobility needs. The role of accelerating technology in data centers are key for production operations among industry leaders such as Amazon and Microsoft for real-time processing. The same accelerating technology that has successfully impacted data centers will play the same role in much smaller micro data centers (mDC) for Smart-City design in the transportation infrastructure. These mDCs and Edge computing sites will be tasked with the latency, tasking caching and offloading (TCO), and processing of millions of connected…
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Determining Vibro-Acoustic Characteristics and Structural Damping of an Elastic Monolithic Panel

Wayne State University-Sean Wu, Lingguang Chen
Shiloh Industries, Inc.-Antonio Figueroa
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries. In this work, we present the comparisons between the traditional modal analyses for structural vibrations together with sound intensity measurements of sound radiation and a laser-assisted Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS) method [1, 2, 3, 4] to characterize the dynamic and acoustic responses of an arbitrarily shaped structure subject to non-contact acoustic excitations. Input data for the latter include the normal surface velocities measured at a finite number of points on the surface of the structure that are accessible to…
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Development of Subject-Specific Elderly Female Finite Element Models for Vehicle Safety

Wayne State University-Xin Jin
Chongqing University-Yunlei Yin, Junming Li, Qingmiao Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks. The multiple peak points were selected to expand landmarks set, so as to improve the morphing quality compared…
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Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The experimental tests are performed in battery module-level, a four series-connected cells (14.4V, 20Ah), under various charging and discharging currents in a temperature chamber. The experimental data is used to calibrate the model…
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On-Road and Chassis Dynamometer Evaluation of a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV

Wayne State University-Miriam Di Russo, Vaibhav Arora, Ronghui Lyu, Jerry C. Ku
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the vehicle testing activities performed during the Year 4 of the EcoCAR 3 competition by the Wayne State University team on a Pre-Transmission Parallel PHEV. The paper focuses on two main testing platforms: the chassis dynamometer and the closed-course track (on-road). The focus of the former is to evaluate the emissions and energy consumption associated with different driving scenarios, while the latter has been used to assess the vehicle performance and their impact on the consumer appeal. The paper presents the objectives of each test, the setup accomplished for the different vehicle testing platforms, the results obtained and the comparison with the values expected from simulations. In addition, the impact of the results on the refinement of the control strategies and on the validation of the simulation models are discussed.The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer a 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance and consumer acceptability.Over the course of Year 4 the Control and Modeling and Simulation team used various simulation platforms to…
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Investigating Collaborative Robot Gripper Configurations for Simple Fabric Pick and Place Tasks

Wayne State University-Ana Djuric
University of Windsor-Morteza Alebooyeh, Bowen Wang, Ruth Jill Urbanic, Hamed Kalami
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fiber composite materials are widely used in many industrial applications - specially in automotive, aviation and consumer goods. Introducing light-weighting material solutions to reduce vehicle mass is driving innovative materials research activities as polymer composites offer high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. However, there are issues related to high production volume, automation strategies and handling methods. The state of the art for the production of these light-weight flexible textile or composite fiber products is setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck. Consequently, the long term research goal is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. Collaborative robots allow for interactive human-machine tasks to be conducted. The immediate research is to assess standard and modified grippers for basic material pick and place tasks via sets of experimental tasks. Pick and place experiments with flat carbon fiber fabric and two gripper configurations are tested with a YuMi 14000 ABB collaborative robot to determine…
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A 3D Simulation Methodology for Predicting the Effects of Blasts on a Vehicle Body

Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
Indian Institute of Science-Sanketh Ramachandra, Anindya Deb
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Triggered explosions are increasingly becoming common in the world today leading to the loss of precious lives under the most unexpected circumstances. In most scenarios, ordinary citizens are the targets of such attacks, making it essential to design countermeasures in open areas as well as in mobility systems to minimize the destructive effects of such explosive-induced blasts. It would be rather difficult and to an extent risky to carry out physical experiments mimicking blasts in real world scenarios. In terms of mechanics, the problem is essentially one of fluid-structure interaction in which pressure waves in the surrounding air are generated by detonating an explosive charge which then have the potential to cause severe damage to any obstacle on the path of these high-energy waves. An alternative to physical testing would be to use an advanced simulation technique such as an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian)-based explicit nonlinear finite element formulation implemented in a well-known solver such as LS-DYNA. It has been observed by the present authors that the previously reported explorations in this area are primarily laboratory…
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New Paradigm in Robust Infrastructure Scalability for Autonomous Applications

Wayne State University-Kyle W. Brown
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) and Big Data are increasing become more applicable in the development of technology from machine design and mobility to bio-printing and drug discovery. The ability to quantify large amounts of data these systems generate will be paramount to establishing a robust infrastructure for interdisciplinary autonomous applications. This paper purposes an integrated approach to the environment, pre/post data processing, integration, and system security for robust systems in intelligent transportation systems. The systems integration is based on a FPGA embedded system design and computing (EDGE) platform utilizing image processing CNN algorithms from High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments in data centers with associative memory to ROS- FPGA technology in vehicles for hyper-scale infrastructure scalability. The ability to process data in the future is equivalent to collision particle detection that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produces at CERN. The future of robust scalability will depend upon how seamlessly several applications can be integrated into a high-performance package with minimal consumption. The proposed architecture will entirely be dependent on a digital network with special attention paid to…
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Investigation of Fuel Condensation Processes under Non-reacting Conditions in an Optically-Accessible Engine

Wayne State University-Ethan Eagle
Sandia National Laboratories-Mark Musculus
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine experiments have revealed the importance of fuel condensation on the emission characteristics of low temperature combustion. However, direct in-cylinder experimental evidence has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, the in-cylinder condensation processes observed in optically accessible engine experiments are first illustrated. The observed condensation processes are then simulated using state-of-the-art multidimensional engine CFD simulations with a phase transition model that incorporates a well-validated phase equilibrium numerical solver, in which a thermodynamically consistent phase equilibrium analysis is applied to determine when mixtures become unstable and a new phase is formed. The model utilizes fundamental thermodynamics principles to judge the occurrence of phase separation or combination by minimizing the system Gibbs free energy. It is shown that thermodynamically unstable mixtures are formed during the late expansion stroke for the conditions of the experiments. Close agreement on the beginning of condensation is also observed between the simulations and available experiments.
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Side Impact Assessment and Comparison of Appropriate Size and Age Equivalent Porcine Surrogates to Scaled Human Side Impact Response Biofidelity Corridors

Wayne State University-Jennifer L. Yaek, Christopher J. Andrecovich, John M. Cavanaugh
Vehicle Safety Sciences, LLC (Ford Retired)-Stephen W. Rouhana
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
Analysis and validation of current scaling relationships and existing response corridors using animal surrogate test data is valuable, and may lead to the development of new or improved scaling relationships. For this reason, lateral pendulum impact testing of appropriate size cadaveric porcine surrogates of human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male age equivalence, were performed at the thorax and abdomen body regions to compare swine test data to already established human lateral impact response corridors scaled from the 50th percentile human adult male to the pediatric level to establish viability of current scaling laws. Appropriate Porcine Surrogate Equivalents PSE for the human 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile male, based on whole body mass, were established. A series of lateral impact thorax and abdomen pendulum testing was performed based on previously established scaled lateral impact assessment test protocols. The PSE thorax and abdominal impact response data were assessed against previously established scaled human thorax lateral impact response corridors and scaled abdominal oblique impact response corridors for the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 10-year-old, and 50th percentile human…
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