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Application of Multivariate Control Chart Techniques to Identifying Nonconforming Pallets in Automotive Assembly Plants

Wayne State University-Kai Yang
FCA US LLC-Michael Huang, Yuqin Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0477
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Hotelling multivariate control chart and the sample generalized variance |S| are used to monitor the mean and dispersion of underbody data including the pallet information to identify the non-conforming pallets. An iterative procedure and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) are used to rank the non-conforming pallets in the order of severity. The multivariate Hotelling T^2 test statistic with Mason-Tracy-Young (MYT) signal decomposition method are used to identify the features that are affected by the non-conforming pallets. These algorithms were implemented in Advanced Pallet Analysis module of FCA Body Shop Analysis Tool (BSAT). The identified non-conforming pallets are displayed in a scatter plot with different color for each pallet. The run chart of an affected feature confirms the nonconforming pallets by highlighting data points from the nonconforming pallet. The analysis module has been successfully used in the body shops of FCA plants. One example is presented to demonstrate the application.
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Step by Step Conversion of ICE Motorcycle to a BEV Configuration

Wayne State University-Matthew D. Lawrence, Saeed Siavoshani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technologies, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limits, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed.Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with the process of the project. The step-by-step process that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and should be used as necessary. During the development and conversion process, the model of the electric motorcycle was developed in Simulink to size the battery pack and the electric motor. This model was also the focus of different design experiments to choose the proper components and subsystems to minimize the…
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Smart Spark Plug for Proper Combustion Timing in Gasoline Engines and Detection of Misfire and Knock

Wayne State University-Naeim A. Henein
Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) Inc.-Kamal Assaad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0790
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines are required to achieve production goals of better fuel economy, improved fuel economy and reduced emissions in order to meet the current and future stringent standards. To achieve these goals, it is essential to control the combustion process using an in-cylinder combustion sensor and a system that produces a feedback signal to the ECU. This paper presents a system based on combustion ionization that includes a newly developed smart spark plug capable of sensing the whole combustion process. A unique feature of the smart spark plug system is its ability to sense the early stages of combustion and produce a complete ion current signal that accurately identifies and can be used for the control of the start of combustion. This is not the case for the conventional spark plug where the start of combustion cannot be determined from the ion current signal because its early part is distorted or completely overshadowed by the strong electromagnetic field produced by the spark ignition system. In addition to its ability to detect and control the…
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Experimental Evaluation of Longitudinal Control for Connected and Automated Vehicles through Vehicle-in-the-Loop Testing

Wayne State University-Jerry Ku
Argonne National Laboratory-Miriam Di Russo, Simeon Iliev, Kevin M. Stutenberg, Eric Rask
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0714
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving functionalities delivered through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) have been adopted more and more frequently in consumer vehicles. The development and implementation of such functionalities pose new challenges in safety and functional testing and the associated validations, due primarily to their high demands on facility and infrastructure. This paper presents a rather unique Vehicle-in-the-Loop (VIL) test setup and methodology compared those previously reported, by combining the advantages of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and traditional chassis dynamometer test cell in place of on-road testing, with a multi-agent real-time simulator for the rest of test environment. Details associated with applying the proposed VIL for testing adaptive cruise control (ACC), in conjunction with approaches for creating a virtual lead vehicle, as well as results of energy consumption analysis for a 2017 Toyota Prime with stock and improved longitudinal control algorithm, are reported to illustrate the effectiveness of low-infrastructure-demand test setup and the potential in applying the setup and methodology to other ADAS functionalities
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Strategies to Gain the Loss in Power in a Military Diesel Engine Using JP-8 Instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted the use of JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include cetane number, density, heating value and compressibility (Bulk modulus). While JP8 has advantages compared to ULSD, related to storage, combustion and lower soot emissions, its use cause a drop in the peak power in some military diesel engines. The engines that has loss in power use the Hydraulically actuated Electronic Unit Injection (HEUI) fuel system. The paper explains in details the operation of HEUI including fuel delivery into the injector and its compression to the high injection pressure before its delivery in the combustion chamber. The effect of fuel compressibility on the volume of the fuel that is injected into the combustion chamber is explained in details. A fuel such as JP-8 which has a lower Bulk modulus is compressed to a smaller volume than ULSD which has a higher Bulk modulus before its delivery in the combustion chamber, and this is the main reason for the drop…
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Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Modeling with Experiments for Battery Pack Design

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1185
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion polymer battery has been widely used for vehicle onboard electric energy storage ranging from 12V SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition), 48V mild hybrid electric, to 300V battery electric vehicle. Formulation on cell parameters acquired from minimum numbers of experiments, the modeling and simulation could be an effective approach in predicting battery performance, thermal effectiveness, and degradation. This paper describes the modeling, simulation, and validation of Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt-Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) based cell with 3.6V nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity. Constant current 20A, 40A, 60A, and 80A discharge tests are conducted in the computer-controlled cycler and temperature chamber. Discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature distributions are recorded in each discharging test. A three-dimensional cell model is constructed in the COMSOL multi-physics platform based on the cell parameters. The model validation is performed by experimental discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature data. Simulated data matches the experiments with acceptable discrepancy. As a cell is the building block to form high-voltage battery module and pack, the developed cell model could play an important role in battery pack development…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Using Polygot Persistence with NoSQL Databases for Streaming Multimedia, Sensor, and Messaging Services in Autonomous Vehicles

Wayne State University-Kyle W. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0942
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The explosion of big data has created challenges for both cloud-based systems and Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in data collection and management. The same challenges are now being realized in developing databases for integrated sensors, streaming, real-time and on-demand services in AVs. With just one AV expecting to generate over 30 Terabytes of data a day, modern NoSQL databases provide opportunities to horizontally scale AV data seamlessly. NoSQL provides solutions designed to accommodate a wide variety of data models such as, key-value, document, column and graph databases. Key-value stores are by nature scalable, fast processing, and distribute horizontally. These databases are tasked with handling several data types including IoT, radar, lidar, ultra-sonic sensors, GPS, odometry, and sensor data while providing streaming and real-time services. NoSQL can store and utilize structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data necessary for multimedia storage needs. NoSQL databases such as Graph databases support big data necessary for the demands of modern software development. Graph databases can scale AV data by using geospatial and geolocation coordinates as entities for flexible queries and pattern recognition.…
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An Optimization Study of Occupant Restraint System for Different BMI Senior Women in Vehicle Frontal Impact

Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang, Yunlei Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0981
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accident statistics have shown that older and obese occupants are less adaptable to existing vehicle occupant restraint systems than ordinary middle-aged male occupants, and tend to have higher risk of death and injury in vehicle crashes.However, the current research on the mechanism of injury in vehicle frontal impact for aging and obese occupants is scarce. This paper mainly focuses on the optimization design method of occupant constraint system parameters for specific body type characteristics. The damage attributes of vehicle crash on elderly female with different BMI (body mass index) was analyzed. The design variables in the constraint system were screened for DOE analysis. We selected five parameters for optimization, namely the force limiter force limit value of the seat belt, the pretensioner preload of the seat belt, the preload time of the seat belt, the ignition time of the airbag, the proportionality coefficient of the mass flow rate of the airbag. The objective of this study is to minimize the risk of comprehensive injuries, and the constraints are that indicator values for head injury, neck…
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Response Ratio Development for Lateral Pendulum Impact with Porcine Thorax and Abdomen Surrogate Equivalents

Wayne State University-Jennifer L. Yaek, John M. Cavanaugh
Vehicle Safety Sciences, LLC-Stephen W. Rouhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0007
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
There has been recent progress over the past 10 years in research comparing 6-year-old thoracic and abdominal response of pediatric volunteers, pediatric post mortem human subjects (PMHS), animal surrogates, and 6-year-old ATDs. Although progress has been made to guide scaling laws of adult to pediatric thorax and abdomen data for use in ATD design and development of finite element models, further effort is needed, particularly with respect to lateral impacts.The objective of the current study was to use the impact response data of age equivalent swine from Yaek et al. (2018) to assess the validity of scaling laws used to develop lateral impact response corridors from adult porcine surrogate equivalents (PSE) to the 3-year-old, 6-year-old, and 10-year-old for the thorax and abdominal body regions. Lateral impact response corridors were created from 50th adult male PSE pendulum lateral impact T1, T14, and L6 accelerations and pendulum impact force time histories for the thorax and abdomen testing performed. The ISO 9790 scaling technique using length, mass, and elastic modulus scale factor formulas were used in conjunction with…