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Application of Multivariate Control Chart Techniques to Identifying Nonconforming Pallets in Automotive Assembly Plants

Wayne State University-Kai Yang
FCA US LLC-Michael Huang, Yuqin Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0477
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Hotelling multivariate control chart and the sample generalized variance |S| are used to monitor the mean and dispersion of underbody data including the pallet information to identify the non-conforming pallets. An iterative procedure and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) are used to rank the non-conforming pallets in the order of severity. The multivariate Hotelling T^2 test statistic with Mason-Tracy-Young (MYT) signal decomposition method are used to identify the features that are affected by the non-conforming pallets. These algorithms were implemented in Advanced Pallet Analysis module of FCA Body Shop Analysis Tool (BSAT). The identified non-conforming pallets are displayed in a scatter plot with different color for each pallet. The run chart of an affected feature confirms the nonconforming pallets by highlighting data points from the nonconforming pallet. The analysis module has been successfully used in the body shops of FCA plants. One example is presented to demonstrate the application.
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Advancements of MEMristor Materials in Neuromorphic Computing for Autonomous Systems.

Wayne State University-Kyle W. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0088
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The advancements in analog electronics has spurred the development of neuromorphic computing which can replicate bio-neurological processes using artificial synapses. Artificial synapses can process information faster and more efficiently than CPUs for specialized applications like sparse coding, graph searches, and constraint-satisfaction problems. Neuromorphic systems offset CPU’s lack of processing power to solve complex tasks and computations, higher parallelism, novel neural-inspired algorithms, and optimizations. Neural-inspired algorithms such as sparse coding, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), path planning, and object tracking event-based cameras are necessary in development of autonomous systems. As the industry and academia realizes the limitations posed Moore’s Law, new computing and performance by MEMristors has enabled continued process-node scaling. New technology like Intel’s inspired neuromorphic microchip demonstrates the benefits of a specialized architecture for emerging applications, including some of the computational problems hardest for the internet of things (IoT) and autonomous devices to support. As new complex computing workloads grow the need for specialized architectures designed for specific applications will be in demand. Specialized architectures using specific applications are ideal for real-world applications, from…
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Step by Step Conversion of ICE Motorcycle to a BEV Configuration

Wayne State University-Matthew D. Lawrence, Saeed Siavoshani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technology, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limit, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed. Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with process of the project. The step-by-step methodology that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and can be enhanced as necessary. During the development & conversion process, the model of the electric motorcycle was developed in Simulink to size the battery pack, the electric motor, as well as the right control strategy for the battery management system. This model was also the focus of different design…
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Smart Plug for Combustion Control in Gasoline Engines and Misfiring and Knock Detection

Wayne State University-Naeim A. Henein
Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) Inc.-Kamal Assaad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0790
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new generation of spark plugs has been developed to produce an ion current signal needed for the control of the combustion process and achieve the production goals of reduced emissions, and improved engine performance and fuel economy. A unique feature of the smart plug is its ability to develop a complete ion current signal and accurately identify the start of combustion. This is not the case for the conventional spark plug where the start of combustion cannot be determined from the ion current signal because its early part is completely overshadowed by the strong electromagnetic field produced by the spark ignition system. The paper describes the construction of the smart plug and compares between its ion current signal and that produced by the conventional spark plug. In addition, a comparison is made between the smart plug and the pressure transducer in the detection of misfire and engine knock.  
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Experimental Evaluation of Longitudinal Control for Connected and Automated Vehicles through Vehicle-in-the-Loop Testing

Wayne State University-Jerry Ku
Argonne National Laboratory-Miriam Di Russo, Simeon Iliev, Kevin M. Stutenberg, Eric Rask
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0714
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving functionalities delivered through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) have been adopted more and more frequently in consumer vehicles. The development and implementation of such functionalities pose new challenges in safety and functional testing and the associated validations, due primarily to their high demands on facility and infrastructure. This paper presents a rather unique Vehicle-in-the-Loop (VIL) test setup and methodology compared those previously reported, by combining the advantages of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and traditional chassis dynamometer test cell in place of on-road testing, with a multi-agent real-time simulator for the rest of test environment. Details associated with applying the proposed VIL for testing adaptive cruise control (ACC), in conjunction with approaches for creating a virtual lead vehicle, as well as results of energy consumption analysis for a 2017 Toyota Prime with stock and improved longitudinal control algorithm, are reported to illustrate the effectiveness of low-infrastructure-demand test setup and the potential in applying the setup and methodology to other ADAS functionalities
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Loss of power in Military vehicles by using JP-8 instead of ULSD

Wayne State University-Prasad D. Raut, Omkar A. Atre, Manan Trivedi, Naeim Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0804
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Department of Defense (DOD) has adopted to use JP-8 under the “single battlefield fuel” policy. Fuel properties of JP-8 which are different from ULSD include Cetane number, density, heating value and bulk modulus. This paper determines which of these properties cause the loss in power and suggest some strategies to regain the power lost while operating on JP-8 instead of ULSD.
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Lithium-ion Battery Cell Modeling with Experiments for Battery Pack Design

Wayne State University-Yiqun Liu, Y. Gene Liao, Ming-Chia Lai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1185
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium-ion polymer battery has been widely used for onboard energy storage in vehicle electrification ranging from 12V stop-start engine idling elimination, 48V mild hybrid, to 300V battery electric vehicle. Formulation on cell parameters acquired from minimum numbers of experiments, the modeling and simulation becomes an effective approach in predicting battery performance, thermal effectiveness, and degradation. This paper describes the modeling, simulation, and validation of a Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt-Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) based cell with 3.6V nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity. The cell characteristic parameters are acquired from constant current 20A, 40A, 60A, and 80A discharge tests in the computer-controlled cycler and temperature chamber. Discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature distributions are recorded in each discharging test. A three-dimensional cell model is constructed in the COMSOL Multiphysics environment based on the experimental cell parameters. The model correlation and validation are based on several discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature data. Simulated data matches the experiments with acceptable discrepancy. As a cell is the building block to form high-voltage battery module and pack, the developed cell model could play…
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A primary study on the restraint system of self-driving car

Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Hongze Ren, Zhonghao Bai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to the variation of compartment design and occupant’s postures in the self-driving car, there is a new and major challenge for occupant protection. In particular, the studies on occupant restraint systems used in the self-driving car has significantly delayed compared to the development of the autonomous technologies. In this paper, a numerical study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of the mainstream restraint systems (3-points belt with airbag or 4-points belt with airbag) on the driver in three different scenarios (driving with a seat angle of 110°, half-reclining resting with a seat angle of 135°, and reclining resting with a seat angle of 160°) . It can be found that in the simulation results: 1. All the restraint systems are capable of providing effective protection for the driving driver and the restraint system with 4-points belt has advantages due to its better protective effect on the occupant thorax; 2. When the driver is half-reclining or reclining resting, the head HIC36, neck Nij and chest compression are about 827-958, 0.62-0.88, and 66-68 mm, respectively;…
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Using Polygot Persistence with NoSQL databases for Streaming Multimedia, Sensor, and Messaging Services in Autonomous Vehicles.

Wayne State University-Kyle W. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0942
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The explosion of data has created challenges for both cloud-based systems and autonomous vehicles in data collection and management. The same challenges are now being realized in developing autonomous databases for the implementation of on-demand services in autonomous vehicles. With just one autonomous vehicle expecting to generate over 30 Terabytes of data a day, modern databases provide opportunities to horizontally scale autonomous data seamlessly. An autonomous vehicle database will be required to handle several data types, radar, lidar, ultra-sonic, GPS, odometry, inertial measurement units, sensor data, while providing streaming services. Multimedia, social media, GPS data, audio, and messaging services will be instrumental to incorporating Platform as a Services (PaaS) into autonomous vehicles. Modern databases such as NoSQL provide solutions designed to accommodate a wide variety of data models, including key-value, document, columnar and graph databases. NoSQL can store and utilize structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data necessary for multimedia storage. NoSQL databases such as graph databases supports big data necessary for the demands of modern software development of streaming services for applications with integration and scalability…
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An Optimization Study of Occupant Restraint System for Different BMI Senior Women in Vehicle Frontal Impact

Wayne State University-Clifford Chou
Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang, Yunlei Yin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0981
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accident statistics have shown that older and obese occupants are less adaptable to existing vehicle occupant restraint systems than ordinary middle-aged male occupants, and tend to have higher risk of death and injury in vehicle crashes.However, the current research on the mechanism of injury in vehicle frontal impact for aging and obese occupants is scarce. This paper mainly focuses on the optimization design method of occupant constraint system parameters for specific body type characteristics. The damage attributes of vehicle crash on elderly female with different BMI (body mass index) was analyzed. The design variables in the constraint system were screened for DOE analysis. We selected five parameters for optimization, namely the force limiter force limit value of the seat belt, the pretensioner preload of the seat belt, the preload time of the seat belt, the ignition time of the airbag, the proportionality coefficient of the mass flow rate of the airbag. The objective of this study is to minimize the risk of comprehensive injuries, and the constraints are that indicator values for head injury, neck…