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Industrial Framework for Identification and Verification of Hot Spots in Automotive Composite Structures

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Henrik Molker, Renaud Gutkin
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Leif E. Asp
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0009
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a framework for efficient strength analysis of large and complex automotive composite structures is presented. This article focuses on processes and methods that are compliant with common practice in the automotive industry. The proposed framework uses efficient shell models for identification of hot spots, automated remodelling and analysis of found hot spots with high-fidelity models and finally an automated way of post-processing the detailed models. The process is developed to allow verification of a large number of load cases in large models and still consider all potential failure modes. The process is focused on laminated composite primary structures. This article highlights the challenges and tools for setting up this framework.
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Acoustic Analysis of Charge Air Coolers

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Magnus Knutsson
KTH CICERO, Sweden-Mats Åbom
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the results from a study of the acoustic properties of charge air coolers for passenger cars. Charge air coolers are used on turbo charged engines to increase the overall performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. Important for petrol engines is also that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through charge air coolers. The pressure drop in the narrow cooling tubes results in frequency dependent resistive effects on the transmitted sound that is non negligible. Since the cross dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are big compared to the wave length for engine breathing noise, three dimensional effects can also be of importance. In this study an acoustic two-port for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, is combined with three dimensional acoustic finite element modeling to represent a complete air-to-air charge air cooler.…
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IC-Engine Intake Acoustic Source Data from Non-Linear Simulations

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Magnus Knutsson
KTH CICERO, Sweden-Hans Bodén
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Non-linear 1-D CFD time domain prediction codes are used to calculate the performance of the gas exchange process for IC-engines. These softwares give time-varying pressures and velocities in the exhaust and intake systems. They could therefore in principle be used to predict radiated orifice noise. However, the accuracy is not sufficient for them to be used as a virtual design tool. More accurate results might be provided by dividing the problem into a source domain and a transmission domain and use linear 3-D frequency domain codes to describe the transmission part. Radiated shell noise and frequency dependent damping could also be included in the frequency domain models. The simplest source model used in the low frequency plane wave range for simulation of dominating engine harmonics is the linear time invariant 1-port model. This acoustic source data is usually obtained from experimental tests where the multi-load methods and especially the two-load method are most commonly used. The main limitations of these tests are that they are time consuming, expensive and require physical hardware which prevents them…
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Impact of Ultra Low Thermal Inertia Manifolds on Emission Performance

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Mats Laurell
Faurecia Exhaust Systems, France-Emmanuel Jean, Vincent Leroy
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to fulfill the more and more stringent emission levels (Euro V, SULEV…), catalytic converter light-off time has to be reduced as much as possible. Consequently, all the parts upstream of the catalytic converter have to be designed in order to minimize the gas heat loss.As a matter of fact, considering the emission performance, all components of the hot end contribute to a better after-treatment. In this study, we focus on the exhaust manifold, that has a major contribution to the thermal mass upstream of the catalyst.The study carried out aims at highlighting the impact of fabricated manifold length and thickness on emissions and engine performance. Several manifold designs, dedicated to different naturally aspirated gasoline engine applications, have been tested on a dynamic engine bench or chassis dyno. Emission results were also supported by temperature measurements. Moreover, the measured gas temperature were finally compared to calculation carried out using a 1D thermo-fluid dynamic model (GASDYN).The obtained results point out a major positive impact of ultra low thermal inertia manifolds on emission performance, regardless of…
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Improving System Design of a Hybrid Powertrain Using Stochastic Drive Cycles and Dynamic Programming

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Mattias Åsbogård
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Lars Johannesson, David Angervall
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A new approach for system design of hybrid powertrains was demonstrated in a case study. The method is based on the following presumptions: The performance of a Hybrid Powertrain Concept (HPC) is evaluated using computer simulation; a HPC cannot be correctly evaluated without an Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for the energy buffer; the optimal EMS is different for each HPC. Dynamic programming was used to generate EMSs that were optimal for the vehicles intended traffic environment and for each given HPC, enabling evaluation of a large number of HPCs. Over-adaptation of the EMSs was avoided by using a stochastic drive cycle model. The final delivery is a competitive powertrain component sizing and the corresponding optimal EMS.
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Simulation for Manufacturing Engineering (ViPP)

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-D. Lämkull, A. Davidsson, A-C. Falck, P. Klingstam
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-H. Sjöberg, R. Örtengren
Published 2005-06-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this project is to develop methodologies and supportive tools to handle introduction and administration of ergonomics simulation tools for manufacturing engineering. The main result will be a web-based handbook for effective use of digital human modelling tools inside companies and between suppliers and companies. ViPP is divided in three parts:Part A: Studies will be done with the purpose to advise on proper content of input data and on method for assessment of simulations' results.Part B: Studies will be done in order to check reliability of used digital human tools: (1) intra- and inter-individual differences concerning simulation results, (2) vision analysis and (3) the importance of the digital human model appearance/representation on simulation results.Part C: A handbook will be written on virtual production planning for pre production engineers, designers and decision makers.
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A Program for the Fatigue Analysis of Automotive Spot-Welds Based on Finite Element Calculations

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Mikael Fermer
nCode International Ltd., UK-Peter Heyes
Published 1996-10-01 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
A Software system has been developed which permits fatigue life predictions to be made for automotive spot welds joining two steel sheets, based on finite-element analyses. The method requires the spot welds in a structure to be modelled as stiff bar elements in a relatively coarse mesh, with the bar elements acting as force transducers. The method uses the bar element cross sectional forces and moments to calculate the “structural stresses” in each spot-weld nugget and the adjacent sheets.The system permits the user to play complex loading histories through a finite element model, using either a quasi-static or transient approach to stress history determination. The method provides a convenient way to predict the locations and lives of fatigue sensitive spot welds, and includes graphical tools to assist in interpretation of results. Studies so far indicate that in a typical application such as an automotive body structure, the system correctly identifies all the spot welds that are likely to give rise to durability problems. Using generic S-N curves, life predictions made so far have tended to…
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Sulphur Storage and Hydrogen Sulphide Release from a Three-Way Catalyst Equipped Car

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-I. Gottberg, E. Högberg, K. Weber
Published 1989-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline fuels contain varying amounts of sulphur. Sulphur has a great influence on the emissions from catalyst equipped cars. Standard catalysts of European-type have been investigated regarding sulphur storage and release during different operating conditions. Papers presented earlier on H2S problems from three-way catalyst equipped cars have not illustrated the dependence upon catalyst age and driving conditions. This paper will discuss tests and results of H2S release in connection with closed throttle operations and evaporative canister purging.Test have been performed on passenger cars, driven both on the test track and on highways in a repeatible way. The fuel has had varying amounts of sulphur.By varying temperature and air-fuel ratio, the conditions necessary for sulphur storage and release in closed-looped fuel injected catalyst equipped engines have been demonstrated.It is shown that the storage is increased by leaner fuel mixtures and that the release of H2S requires an inlet temperature of 450° C for a fresh catalyst and over 550° C for an aged catalyst.If temperature conditions are fulfilled, H2S release is possible during: Full load accelerationRetardation…
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Increasing Mileage with an Adaptive Microprocessor Shift Indicator

Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden-Stefan Ulveland, Eyvind Stadig
Published 1985-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A microprocessor controlled shift indicator reduces fuel consumption for passenger cars with manual transmission, especially in city traffic. The system automatically senses and stores the number and values of the total gear ratios between the engine and the rear axle. The expected engine speed on the next higher gear is continously calculated and used as the criteria for shift indication. One type of system can be used in almost all car models independant of transmission ratios, number of gears or final drive ratio.
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