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Evaluation of the Injury Risks of Truck Occupants Involved in a Crash as a Result of Errant Truck Platoons

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Virginia Tech, USA-Hanxiang Jin, Yunzhu Meng, Alexandrina Untaroiu, Zachary Doerzaph
Texas A&M Transportation Institute, USA-Roshan Sharma, Chiara Silvestri Dobrovolny
  • Journal Article
  • 09-08-01-0001
Published 2020-03-11 by SAE International in United States
Truck platooning comprises a number of trucks equipped with automated lateral and longitudinal vehicle control technology, which allows them to move in tight formation with short following distances. This study is an initial step toward developing an understanding of the occupant injury risks associated with the multiple sequential impacts between truck platoons and roadside safety barriers, regardless of whether the crash is associated with a malfunction of automated control or human operation. Full-scale crash impacts of a tractor-trailer platoon into a concrete bridge guardrail were simulated for a specific Test Level condition according to the Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) standards. The model of the bridge barrier was developed based on its drawings, and material properties were assigned according to literature data. The impact simulation of the first impact was validated against a full-scale crash test conducted by the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility (MwRSF) based on resulting vehicle kinematics and then a higher-fidelity truck cabin model including interior structures was used to evaluate the occupant dynamics and associated safety risks during the impact event.…
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Finite Element Modeling of an Energy-Absorbing Guardrail End Terminal

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Virginia Tech, USA-Yunzhu Meng, Costin Daniel Untaroiu
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, USA-Wen Hu
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-04-0021
Published 2020-02-07 by SAE International in United States
Guardrail end terminals are specifically designed to decelerate vehicles during impact and protect vehicle occupants from severe injuries. The main objective of this research was to develop and validate a Finite Element (FE) model of the ET-Plus, a commonly used energy-absorbing guardrail end terminal. The ET-Plus FE model was created based on publicly available data on ET-Plus dimensions and material properties. The model was validated against the NCHRP-350 crash tests 27-30 and 31-30 by performing crash simulations with a vehicle model at 100 km/h (62 mph) pre-impact velocity. To check the model robustness, crash simulations with vehicle pre-impact velocities from 97 km/h (60 mph) to 113 km/h (70 mph) were also performed. The developed ET-Plus FE model has a high-quality mesh and can replicate the energy-absorbing mechanism. The time histories of the vehicle yaw angle predicted in the FE simulations of the two NCHRP 350 crash tests showed good agreement with the corresponding test data. Additionally, the model was stable in crash simulations with the investigated range of pre-impact velocities, and both post-impact velocities and…
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Countering the Destabilizing Effects of Shifted Loads through Pneumatic Suspension Design

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Virginia Tech, USA-Yang Chen, Mehdi Ahmadian
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0001
Published 2019-11-08 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes a novel approach to reduce the destabilizing impacts of the shifted loads of heavy trucks (due to improper loading or liquid slosh) by pneumatic suspension design. In this regard, the pneumatically balanced suspension with dual leveling valves is introduced, and its potential for the improvement of the body imbalance due to the shifted load is determined. The analysis is based on a multi-domain model that couples the suspension fluid dynamics, shifted-load impacts, and tractor-semitrailer dynamics. Truck dynamics is simulated using TruckSim, which is integrated with the pneumatic suspension model developed in AMESim. This yields a reasonable prediction of the effect of the suspension airflow dynamics on vehicle dynamics. Moreover, the ability of the pneumatic suspension to counteract the effects of two general shifted loads - static (rigid cargo) and dynamic (liquid) - is studied. The simulation results indicate that the dual-leveling-valve suspension results in a reduction in roll angle and roll rate of the vehicle body for both static and dynamic load-shifting cases, as compared to the conventional single-leveling-valve suspension. Suppression of…
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A Combination of Intelligent Tire and Vehicle Dynamic Based Algorithm to Estimate the Tire-Road Friction

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Virginia Tech, USA-Saied Taheri
NIO, USA-Omid Ghasemalizadeh
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0007
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
One of the most important factors affecting the performance of vehicle active chassis control systems is the tire-road friction coefficient. Accurate estimation of the friction coefficient can lead to better performance of these controllers. In this study, a new three-step friction estimation algorithm, based on intelligent tire concept, is proposed, which is a combination of experiment-based and vehicle dynamic based approaches. In the first step of the proposed algorithm, the normal load is estimated using a trained Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The network was trained using the experimental data collected using a portable tire testing trailer. In the second step of the algorithm, the tire forces and the wheel longitudinal velocity are estimated through a two-step Kalman filter. Then, in the last step, using the estimated tire normal load and longitudinal and lateral forces, the friction coefficient can be estimated. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, experiments were performed using the trailer test setup and friction was calculated using the measured forces. Good agreement was observed between the estimated and actual friction coefficients.
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A Probabilistic Approach to Hydroplaning Potential and Risk

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Virginia Tech, USA-Yong-suk Kang, Ashkan Nazari, Lu Chen, Saied Taheri, John B. Ferris, Gerardo Flintsch
University at Buffalo, USA-Francine Battaglia
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-01-0005
Published 2019-01-30 by SAE International in United States
A major contributor to fatal vehicle crashes is hydroplaning, which has traditionally been reported at a specific vehicle speed for a given operating condition. However, hydroplaning is a complex phenomenon requiring a holistic, probabilistic, and multidisciplinary approach. The objective of this article is to develop a probabilistic approach to predict Hydroplaning Potential and Risk that integrates fundamental understanding of the interdependent factors: hydrology, fluid-solid interactions, tire mechanics, and vehicle dynamics. A novel theoretical treatment of Hydroplaning Potential and Risk is developed, and simulation results for the prediction of water film thickness and Hydroplaning Potential are presented. The results show the advantages of the current approach which could enable the improvement of road, vehicle, and tire design, resulting in greater safety of the traveling public.
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