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Assessment & optimization of Front End Cooling module of a Commercial Vehicle by CFD based simulation & prototype testing

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Ashok Patidar, Vikas LASHKARI
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Eshaan Ayyar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0164
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Overall cycle time and prototype testing are significantly decreased by assessment of cooling module performance in the design stage itself. Hence, Front End Cooling and Thermal Management are essential components of the vehicle design process. Performance of the cooling module depends upon a variety of factors like frontal opening, air flow, under-hood sub-systems, module positioning, front grill design, fan operation. Effects of design modifications on the engine cooling performance are quantified by utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool FluentTM. Vehicle frontal configuration is captured in the CFD model considering cabin, cargo and underbody components. Heat Exchanger module is modelled as a porous medium to simulate the fluid flow. Performance data for the Heat Exchanger module is generated using the 1D KuliTM software. In this paper, CFD simulation of Front End Cooling is performed for maximum torque and maximum power operating conditions. Analysis results predict and plot the air flow patterns in the under-body region by obtaining velocity streamlines in the wind tunnel volume. Hot and cold air recirculation zones are identified and rectified by design…
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A Comprehensive Study on Euro 6 Turbocharger Selections and Its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Aravind Mohan, Juzer Jaliwala, Kunaal Bhagat, Kumar Patchappalam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0061
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms a good strategy will be to optimize the engine out emission through in cylinder emission control techniques and a right sized after treatment system has to be used for this optimized engine. There exist several factors and trade-off between these should be established for in cylinder optimization of emissions. Since the turbocharger plays an apex role in controlling both the performance and engine out emissions of a CI engine, turbocharger selection is a crucial step in the development of new generation of Euro 6 engines in India. Such engines are equipped with additional actuators such as Intake Throttle Valve and Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission. This study focusses on the use of different AVU (Air Valve Unit) controlled waste gate turbochargers…
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Comfort Improvement in Air Conditioned Buses through the Homogenous Air Flow along the Hatrack by Using Different Types of Baffle Plates

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Saurabh Sharma, Akarsh Sathish, Jitendra Thakur, Sushil Shende
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
India being a developing nation, there is significant improvement of road infrastructure across the country as well as the spending power and earnings of the common man. This leads to the new trend of customers willing to pay for a more comfortable travel through AC buses. To satisfy these demands, OEM’s are forced develop and manufacture huge numbers of AC buses. Although the OEM’s are meeting this demand of quantity, the quality aspect of the buses, i.e., climate comfort, is still subpar. One of the main reasons for this sub-quality comfort is the non homogenous distribution of air flow along the bus. This non homogeneity leads to the centre of the bus having very high air flow and thus overcooling conditions, while the front and rear of the bus receive very little air flow and thus receive under-cooling conditions.To solve this concern of non homogeneity, we incorporated a new design in the hatrack, through the implementation of baffles and deflector in the hatrack. With this new design, air flow distribution was analyzed through CFD and…
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Compressed Air in Engine Exhaust Manifold to Improve Engine Performance and Fuel Economy

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Jyotirmoy Barman, Kumar Patchappalam, Himanshu Gambhir
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Turbo lag is a very common phenomenon with all diesel engines using the turbo charger to boost power output from an engine. Naturally aspirated diesel engine which is more polluting, heavier, having higher power losses makes a diesel engine more lethargic. Turbocharged diesel engine is fuel efficient, having lower emissions and better power. A smaller sized turbocharged diesel engine delivers power equivalent to larger sized engine;Turbo Lag is the time required to change power output in response to throttle inputs. Turbo lag results in slow increase of speed when we press the accelerator pedal. Turbo lag becomes a real cause of concern when rapid changes in power are required. This is due to the time required for a turbocharger and exhaust system to generate the required boost. Inertia, Friction and Load on the compressor are prime contributor of Turbo Lag;Applications of Turbocharger can be sub-categorized into those that require frequent changes in power output such as automotive and those that do not require frequent changes such as locomotives, aircraft, marine, commercial automotive, gensets, and locomotives.…
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Design, Simulation and Validation of Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) Mounting Bracket for Electric Powertrain Application

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Kamal Rohilla, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Saurabh Agrawal, Jasvir Bisht, Pungaraj Muthaiah
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The main driving force behind recent innovations in automotive sector is the need to decrease the dependability on fossil fuels and move towards alternative sources for energy. While there is still substantial scope for improvement in conventional diesel and petrol engine based powertrains, the inherent dependency on limited and rapidly depleting carbon based fuels make their long term usage impractical highlighting the need for alternative non-conventional powertrain setups.In the recent past, electric powertrains have come out as favorable alternative as they are extremely flexible in adopting to scenarios where energy for use might be drawn from multiple sources such as solar power, hydroelectric, nuclear reaction, etc. The advantages can further be magnified by adopting the electric power based powertrains in mass transportation application such as bus application. However, the adoption of electric power based powertrains requires a complete redesign of powertrain mounting architecture.This study is specifically focused on redesigning the Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD) mounting bracket for bus application. The new design will also include the provision for the mounting of prime mover (electric…
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Calibration Strategies to Improve Exhaust Temperature Management in BSVI with Optimized Fuel Economy for 3.77 Lts Engine

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Anurag Durve, Jyotirmoy Barman, Himanshu Gambhir
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
For the upcoming norms of BSVI, it is very important to keep the balance of emission and fuel economy. In these paper different concepts for exhaust gas temperature management will be analyzed and compared. In transient and steady conditions with medium and low load, the effects of active control strategies on exhaust thermal management were studied at the test bench, which include E waste gate intake throttle valve opening, injection advance angle, injection pressure and post injection. The comparison study was factors impacting the fuel economy and temperature management along with to meet WHSC & WHTC emission. The DOE was done to understand the best suitable match with the above function to achieve the optimized fuel economy and BSVI legislative requirement. Different test where carried with 0-100% of opening of intake throttle valve, E waste full open and late post injection to understand the thermal management of engine in part and full load. The World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) was used to evaluate the effect of improving exhaust temperature. WHTC experimental results indicated clearly that…
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Design Optimization of Engine Cooling Unit Packaging for Commercial Vehicle

Prateek Sharma
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Mahendra Parwal, Eshaan Ayyar
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
An engine cooling system is required to maintain stable operating temperature for the engine and prevent it from overheating. Thermal distortion of engine parts can take place if proper cooling is not maintained and engine may loss efficiency. One of the major problem in this domain is to incorporate separate cooling systems for the different variants of engines (different power rating). A single optimized cooling unit is desired to manage the entire range of engine rated power. The factors that affect the cooling system are front end grill opening area, air recirculation, location of snorkel inlet, radiator core size, which need to be tuned to get appropriate results. The above parameters are tuned to obtain appropriate results using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the next stage, on road cooling trials are performed and real time data is collected. A correlation is established between physical trials and CFD results which may be helpful in future projects as well.From experimental results we observed a sufficient temperature drop in both heat exchangers (radiator and intercooler) and…
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Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Pilot and Post Injection on Engine Performance and Emissions

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Himanshu Gambhir, Jyotirmoy Barman, Kumar Patchappalam
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are facing stringent norms and future survival with its lower availability is one of the biggest concerns for OEMs of heavy duty commercial vehicles. This is leading to uplifting of new, latent and innovative techniques to achieve these norms with best possible BSFC to reduce overall diesel consumption. The prime objective of this study is to identify and explore the latent strength of pre and post injection on engine performance, emissions and oil dilution due to soot. The post injection strategy has the potential to reduce soot with almost same NOx and fuel consumption depending on the delay of post injection and its quantity. It aids to increase the engine out temperatures for assistance of after-treatment devices, thus meeting higher temperature requirements for NOx and PM conversion for stringent norms of BSVI. Post injection was performed by decreasing the main fuel injection duration, so as to keep overall fuelling to same value, thus end of injection was decreased and same NOx level with lower soot in exhaust and oil was observed. On the…
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Optimization of Propeller Shaft Vibrations in Truck Segment through Physical and Virtual Simulations

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Jeevan Jathar, Sonu Paroche, Kunal Kamal, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents theoretical calculation, analysis and simulation (validation and verification) of driveshaft torsion vibration. The vibration measurement validation verification has been carried out on vehicle (4x2) having four cylinder engine 85kw@2800 rpm and six speed manual transmission for getting correlation between values of theoretical calculations and CAE results.This analysis has been done in order to achieve vehicle good performance in terms of driving comfort as well as smooth functionality with zero vibration frequency at high speed. The propeller shaft series selection and refinement has been done using theoretical iteration with operating angle of prop shaft which exits in between the universal joint planes. A frequency of vibration analysis has evaluated at different propeller shaft layout and duty cycle.The vibration performance predictions for vehicles with these design is rigorously done. The required parameters are recorded, compared in tabulated form shown in graphical way. The lowest operating angle of drive shaft design leads to optimize the vibration and provide better overall vehicle performance at different speed. An effective selection of drive shaft layout has been done…
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Finite Element Simulation and Validation of Planetary Gear System

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Sonu Paroche, Himanshu Deshmukh, Suresh Kumar Kandreegula, Alok Muley
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The planetary gear system is a critical component in speed reduction of gear system. It consists of a ring gear, set of planetary gears, a sun gear and a carrier. It is mainly used in high speed reduction transmission. More speed variation can be achieved using this system with same number of gears. This speed reduction is based on the number of teeth in each gear. The size of new system is compact. A theoretical calculation is performed at concept level to get the desired reduction of speed. Then the planetary gear system is simulated using ANSYS software for new development transmission system. The final validation is done with the testing of physical parts. This concept is implemented in 9speed transmission system. Similar concept is in development for the hub reduction with planetary gears. The maximum 3.67 reduction is achieved with planetary system. The stresses in each pin is calculated using FEA.
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