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Experimental Study and Analysis of Ice Crystal Accretion on a Gas Turbine Compressor Stator Vane

University of Queensland-Liam Parker
Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier, Alasdair Reed
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A significant number of historical engine powerloss events have recently been attributed to ingestion of high altitude ice crystals, prompting regulators to expand engine certification envelopes to incorporate ‘ice crystal icing’ conditions. There has been a resulting effort by OEMs and academia to develop analytical and semi-empirical models for the phenomenon, partly through use of rig testing. The current study presents results and analysis of experiments conducted in the National Research Council’s Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). The experiments used a simplified compressor stator vane test article, designed to produce data to build semi-empirical models and validate an existing ice crystal icing code. Accretion growth rates, extracted from backlit shadowgraphy, are presented as a function of test condition, and the algorithm of a new image processing technique using Canny filtering is discussed. Wet bulb temperature, Mach number, particle size and test article angle of attack were systematically varied. In line with previous experiments, the accretion growth rate was observed to be strongly dependent upon bulk particle melt ratio, with a peak growth rate at approximately…
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A Technical and Financial Analysis of Potentially Near-Zero Greenhouse Gas Emission Passenger Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

University of Queensland-Rahul Sharma
University of Melbourne-Michael Brear, Peter Dennis, Chris Manzie
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0496
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a technical and financial analysis of several, potentially near-zero greenhouse gas emission passenger vehicles for Australian driving conditions. Conventional, series hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV) and fully electric (BEV) vehicles of class B and class E sizes are considered, with their propulsive energy assumed to originate from a source that is free of net greenhouse gas emissions.Extensions to the vehicle models developed by the authors in our previous works [1, 2, 3] are first developed. These enable estimation of the size of each major component in each powertrain, and therefore the total, in-service energy consumption and in-service greenhouse gas emissions. The component sizing also allows estimation of the each vehicle's purchase price, its embodied energy and its embodied greenhouse gas emissions, the latter assuming scenarios for both the current and a future, low emission intensity of Australian manufacturing.The ability of increasingly electric powertrains to reduce in-service energy consumption and emissions, with correspondingly higher up-front price and higher embodied emissions, are then evaluated. Overall, the results suggest that full vehicle electrification is not the…
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A Laboratory Study of NOX Reduction During the Rich Operating Period Over a NOX Storage Catalyst

University of Queensland-B. R. Stanmore
Renault S.A.-M. Guyon
Published 1999-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The behaviour of a NOx storage catalyst in powdered form and containing a storage component based on alkaline metal was investigated under rich conditions. Experiments were conducted in a fixed-bed flow reactor with the space velocity set at 45,000 h-1.From these experiments it was possible to extract the fractional NOx reduction and the efficiency of use of the reductant. With 0.9% CO as a reductant at 350°C, complete utilisation of CO was achieved up to 70% NOx conversion as treatment time was increased. To obtain 90% NOx conversion required longer times, and 23% of the CO did not participate in the reduction of NOX. A reductant balance shows that about 40% of the CO added is used to reduce the catalyst surface when the flow is switched from lean to rich.The ranking of efficiencies of different reductant gases at 350°C gave the following sequence: 0.9% H2 ≈ 0.9% CO > 1285 ppm toluene > 3000 ppm propene ≈ 1125 ppm i-octane > 3000 ppm propane. Thus in an actual exhaust the NOx reduction is due…
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Implementation of Gasoline Electric Hybrid Vehicle Technology at the University of Queensland

University of Queensland-P. E. Hollis
Bullock & Associates-K. J. Bullock
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0382
Published 1993-09-13 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
Since 1979 a Research and Development group at the University of Queensland, Australia has designed and tested several hybrid vehicles (3 of which are reported here), a regenerative braking system for a 12 ton transit bus, a 200 kW, 4-wheel-drive underground mining vehicle and 3 hybrid power generator systems for remote areas. Detail design has also been undertaken for a hybrid drive for a 200-ton dump truck and locomotives.Although the major saving in fuel consumption can be accomplished by converting automobiles to hybrid drives, these are not likely to be implemented unless there is strong government legislation either to save the environment or liquid fuel. This results from the fact that although a hybrid drive can be comparable to a standard vehicle's performance it cannot be produced at the low cost associated with gasoline engines (although these are now very complex) and standard transmissions. However, the economic advantages for larger vehicles is undeniable and the wide experience gained by the Australian Research Group enables it to implement optimum hybrid systems for all vehicles despite the…

Changes in young australians' drunk driving between 1988-1991: maturation or social change?

University of Queensland-M. Sheehan, C. Schonfeld
  • Technical Paper
  • 1992-15-0097
Published 1992-06-23 by International Association for Accident and Traffic Medicine in Sweden
A representative sample of 2500 junior high school students took part in a survey of drink driving knowledge, attitudes and behavior in 1988. The survey was based on the Ajzen and Fishbein theory of reasoned action.A random sample of approximately 1,500 of the original respondents were re- surveyed in 1991. Major changes in their attitudes, intentions and drink driving experiences were found. Students were significantly much less accepting of drink driving and less likely to engage in dangerous activities in 1991. In the case of passenger experiences their behavior in 1991 was more closely related to their intentions in 1988 than to their reported experience at that time. This paper also discusses the methodological issues raised by these findings and the strength and weaknesses of longitudinal studies of change in social attitudes and behaviors.

Use of Classical Control Techniques to Stabilize the Electrical Dynamics of a Highly Unstable Road Load Simulator

University of Queensland-I. A. Stringer, K. J. Bullock
  • Technical Paper
  • 914857
Published 1991-01-01 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
The open-loop transfer function of a complex Ward-Leonard dynamometer system was derived from an analysis of the behaviour of the individual components. The resulting model, which was in good agreement with the open-loop performance of the system, was used to simulate the behaviour of the closed-loop system; this indicated that the system would be unstable.Classical control theory was used to analyse the performance of a number of stabilizing control strategies, and root loci plots, Bode diagrams and Nichols charts were used to assess the resultant performance. A proportional-plus-integral controller combined with lead compensation was predicted to provide acceptable control. The performance of the system with this controller installed was found to satisfy the design requirements of speed of response, limited overshoot and zero steady-state error.

Design and Construction of a Fuel Efficient Braking System

University of Queensland-M.K. Vint
  • Technical Paper
  • 871233
Published 1987-11-08 by SAE Australasia in Australia
This paper provides an insight into the engineering techniques used during the preliminary design, optimisation and final construction of a prototype regenerative braking system which has been retrofitted into a Leyland Panther bus. The system studied utilises a single hydrostatic pump/motor unit which regulates energy flow into and out of hydraulic accumulators.The accumulators, hydrostatic pump/motor and regenerative system have been optimally configured and designed using a probabilistic and statistical approach in conjunction with digital computer simulations. Computer aided design has been used throughout the construction of the prototype system with full advantage being taken of the three dimensional modelling capabilities. The digital control system developed provides tremendous flexibility enabling various near-optimal control algorithms to be utilised for operation over various bus routes. The bus is currently being evaluated whilst in service carrying passengers around the environ's of Brisbane City.

A New Challenge for Mechanical Engineering in Agriculture

University of Queensland-J. E. Holt
  • Technical Paper
  • 864730
Published 1986-01-01 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
The mechanical engineering profession has a long and honourable history of achievements in agriculture. At the present time its contributions seem to be mainly in mechanization and in environmental structures for both plants and animals. The emphasis is on production despite the fact that in the modern food system distribution accounts for the major part of energy use and overall cost. This paper identifies agricultural distribution as an important and urgent area for the commitment of the mechanical engineer. It shows how the engineering method, which lies at the heart of the profession's contributions to society, can be applied to this large and growing sector of the economy
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Design Concepts of a New Generation Reciprocating Steam Engine

University of Queensland-Thomas A. E. Heron, K. J. Bullock
Published 1985-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines require high cost good quality liquid fuel. To some extent this has been a great incentive to investigate external combustion engines, capable of burning a wide range of alternative fuels. Much research has been directed towards the Stirling cycle engine, and to some degree the U.S. automotive steam development programme has introduced new techniques in the design and operation of highly efficient compact boilers and condensers.However, the full potential of the “Rankine cycle” has not been reached because the main component of the power plant, the expander, has been designed using traditional technique. This paper presents concepts for design of a new generation compact non-oil lubricated, high temperature, reheat steam engine with high part-load thermal efficiency.
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