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Combined Optimization of Energy and Battery Thermal Management Control for a Plug-in HEV

University of Bologna-Gabriele Caramia, Nicolo Cavina, Alessandro Capancioni, Stefano Patassa
FEV Italia S.R.L.-Michele Caggiano
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an optimization algorithm, based on discrete dynamic programming, that aims to find the optimal control inputs both for energy and thermal management control strategies of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in order to minimize the energy consumption over a given driving mission. The chosen vehicle has a complex P1-P4 architecture, with two electrical machines on the front axle and an additional one directly coupled with the engine, on the rear axle. In the first section, the algorithm structure is presented, including the cost-function definition, the disturbances, the state variables and the control variables chosen for the optimal control problem formulation. The second section reports the simplified quasi-static analytical model of the powertrain, which has been used for backward optimization. For this purpose, only the vehicle longitudinal dynamics have been considered. The third section describes the Model-in-the-Loop environment of the vehicle, implemented in Simulink. In particular, the validation of the fuel consumption and the battery temperature models against experimental data is shown, and the original control strategies for the energy and thermal management…
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Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis

University of Bologna-Vittorio Ravaglioli, Giacomo Silvagni, Fabrizio Ponti
Magneti Marelli SpA - Powertrain-Federico Stola, Matteo De Cesare
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, compression-ignited engines are considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, mainly due to the current emission regulations, that require increasingly stringent reductions of NOx and particulate matter, the use of diesel-like fuels is becoming a critical issue. For this reason, a large amount of research and experimentation is being carried out to investigate innovative combustion techniques suitable to simultaneously mitigate the production of NOx and soot, while improving engine efficiency.In this scenario, the combined use of compression-ignited engines and gasoline-like fuels proved to be very promising, especially in case the fuel is directly-injected in the combustion chamber at high pressure. The presented study analyzes the combustion process produced by the direct injection of small amounts of gasoline in a compression-ignited light-duty engine. The engine under investigation has been modified to guarantee a stable engine operation over its whole operating range, that is achieved controlling boost pressure and temperature, together with the design of the injection pattern.Experimental tests have been performed to highlight the impact of several control variables on the…
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Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

University of Bologna-Francesco Ranuzzi, Nicolo Cavina, Guido Scocozza, Alessandro Brusa
Magneti Marelli SpA - Driveline Division-Matteo De Cesare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0015
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load.This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper. At first, the focus is on the open-loop branch, to evaluate the performance of the combustion model and its ability to manage Spark Advance (SA) taking in account the phasing implications of WI, maintaining a pre-defined combustion phase target. Then the closed-loop (CL) chain is introduced, defining a structure that allows reaching the target while keeping knock intensity (KI) levels under…
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Evaluation of Water and EGR Effects on Combustion Characteristics of GDI Engines Using a Chemical Kinetics Approach

University of Bologna-Giulio Cazzoli, Gian Marco Bianchi, Stefania Falfari, Matteo Ricci
NAIS-Claudio Forte
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0019
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The modern spark ignition engines, due to the introduced strategies for limiting the consumption without reducing the power, are sensitive to both the detonation and the increase of the inlet turbine temperature. In order to reduce the risk of detonation, the use of dilution with the products of combustion (EGR) is an established practice that has recently improved with the use of water vapor obtained via direct or indirect injection.The application and optimization of these strategies cannot ignore the knowledge of physical quantities characterizing the combustion such as the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay, both are intrinsic property of the fuel and are function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and dilution) and of its thermodynamic conditions.The experimental measurements of the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay available in literature, rarely report the effects of dilution by EGR or water vapor. To overcome the limitations of the experimentation is possible to predict the value of the ignition delay using numerical models based on chemical kinetics theory. The increased performance of computing systems…
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Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

University of Bologna-Alessandro Brusa, Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo
FERRARI S.p.A.-Matteo Cucchi, Nicola Silvestri
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines.The development of a control strategy is composed of several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent in defining and investigating the logic of the strategy. During this phase it is often useful to have a light engine simulator, which allows to have robust synthetic combustion data with a low calibration and computational effort.In the first part of this paper, a description of the control-oriented ANalytical Engine SIMulator (ANESIM) is carried out. The latest results about the zero-dimensional knock model presented in a previous paper and some interesting analytical equations which define the main mean-combustion indexes trends (for example maximum in-cylinder pressure, or Pmax, 50 percent fuel mass fraction burned angle, or MFB50, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, or IMEP) as functions of engine speed…
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Conceptual Design and Analytic Assessment of 48V Electric Hybrid Powertrain Architectures for Passenger Cars

University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
Magneti Marelli SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Enrico Brugnoni
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To meet the requirements in relation to pollutants, CO2-emissions, performances, comfort and costs for 2025 timeframe, many technology options for the powertrain, that plays a key role in the vehicle, are possible. Beside the central aspect of reducing standard cycle consumption levels and emissions, consumer demands are also growing with respect to comfort and functionality. In addition, there is also the challenge of finding cost efficient ways of integrating technologies into a broad range of vehicles with different levels of hybridization. High degrees of electrification simultaneously provide opportunities to reduce the technology content of the internal combustion engines (ICE), resulting in a cost balancing compromise between combustion engine and hybrid technology. The design and optimization of powertrain topologies, functionalities, and components require a complex development process. To face the complexity of goal, in this work a methodology of powertrain conceptual definition has been proposed with the aim of the design, objective assessment and optimization of the key parameters of an hybridized powertrains. A methodology able to define ICE, Transmission and Electric Traction Drive specifications has…
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Review of Combustion Indexes Remote Sensing Applied to Different Combustion Types

University of Bologna-Vittorio Ravaglioli, Filippo Carra
Magneti Marelli SpA – Driveline Division-Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the main studies carried out by the authors for the development of indexes for remote combustion sensing applicable to different combustion types, i.e. conventional gasoline and diesel combustions, diesel PCCI and dual fuel gasoline-diesel RCCI.It is well-known that the continuous development of modern Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) management systems is mainly aimed at complying with upcoming increasingly stringent regulations throughout the world, both for pollutants and CO2 emissions.Performing an efficient combustion control is crucial for efficiency increase and pollutant emissions reduction. Over the past years, the authors of this paper have developed several techniques to estimate the most important combustion indexes for combustion control, without using additional cylinder pressure sensors but only using the engine speed sensor (always available on board) and accelerometers (usually available on-board for gasoline engines). In addition, a low-cost sensor based on acoustic sensing can be integrated to support combustion indexes evaluation and other engine relevant information.The real-time calculation of combustion indexes is even more crucial for innovative Low Temperature Combustions (such as diesel PCCI or dual fuel…
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Development and Software in the Loop Validation of a Model-based Water Injection Combustion Controller for a GDI TC Engine

University of Bologna-Francesco Ranuzzi, Nicolo Cavina, Alessandro Brusa
MAGNETI MARELLI SpA-Matteo De Cesare, Marco Panciroli
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Turbocharged (TC) engines work at high Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), resulting in high in-cylinder pressures and temperatures, improving thermal efficiency, but at the same time increasing the possibility of abnormal combustion events like knock and pre-ignition. To mitigate knocking conditions, engine control systems typically apply spark retard and/or mixture enrichment, which decrease indicated work and increase specific fuel consumption.Many recent studies have advocated Water Injection (WI) as an approach to replace or supplement existing knock mitigation techniques. Water reduces temperatures in the end gas zone due to its high latent heat of vaporization. Furthermore, water vapor acts as diluent in the combustion process.In this paper, the development of a novel closed-loop, model-based WI controller is discussed and critically analyzed. The innovative contribution of this paper is to propose a control strategy based on an analytical combustion model that describes the relationship between the combustion phase and the Spark Advance (SA), considering also the effects of the injected water mass. Such model is calibrated with experimental data acquired during dedicated experimental tests on a GDI…
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Water Injection Applicability to Gasoline Engines: Thermodynamic Analysis

University of Bologna-Stefania Falfari, Gian Marco Bianchi, Giulio Cazzoli, Matteo Ricci
NAIS srl-Claudio Forte
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle WLTP and RDE homologation test cycles are pushing the engine technology toward the implementation of different solutions aimed to the exhaust gases emission reduction. The tightening of the policy on the Auxiliary Emission Strategy (A.E.S.), including those for the engine component protection, faces the Spark Ignited (S.I.) engines with the need to replace the fuel enrichment as a means to cool down both unburnt mixture and exhaust gases to accomplish with the inlet temperature turbine (TiT) limit. Among the whole technology solutions conceived to make SI engine operating at lambda 1.0 on the whole operation map, the water injection is one of the valuable candidates. Despite the fact that the water injection has been exploited in the past, the renewed interest in it requires a deep investigation in order to outcome its potential as well as its limits. Many experimental campaigns have been performed while only few researches have deeply investigated the effect of the water injection on the air-fuel mixture under engine operating conditions. Since the experiments perform like a black box…
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Model-Based Control of Test Bench Conditioning Systems

SAE International Journal of Engines

University of Bologna-Enrico Corti, Michele Taccioli, Fabrizio Ponti
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0129
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Engine test benches are crucial instruments to perform tests on internal combustion engines. Since many factors affect tests results, an engine test bench is usually equipped with several conditioning systems (oil, water and air temperature, air humidity, etc.), in order to maintain the controlled variables to the target values, throughout the test duration.The conditioning systems are often independently controlled by means of dedicated programmable logic controllers (PLC), but a centralized model-based management approach could offer several advantages in terms of promptness and accuracy. This work presents the application of such control methodology to oil, water, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) conditioning systems, where each actuator is managed coupling model-based open loop controls to closed loop actions. The main advantage of integrating the management of several actuators is that the control actions can be coordinated, similarly to what has been achieved in engine management systems with torque-based control: the risk of conflicts in the control actions on different actuators can be reduced, while the introduction in the control loops of other actuators is easier.The…
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