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Identifying the driving processes of Diesel spray injection through mixture fraction and velocity field measurements at ECN Spray A

Universite D'Orleans-Christine Rousselle
Eindhoven University of Technology-Bart Somers
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0831
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel spray mixture formation is investigated at target conditions using multiple diagnostics and laboratories. High speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field inside and outside the jet simultaneously with a new frame straddling synchronisation scheme. The PIV measurements are carried out in the Engine Combustion Network Spray A target conditions, enabling direct comparisons with mixture fraction measurements previously performed in the same conditions, and forming a unique database at diesel conditions. A 1D spray model, based upon mass and momentum exchange between axial control volumes and near-Gaussian velocity and mixture fraction profiles is evaluated against the data. The 1D spray model quantitatively predicts the main spray characteristics (average mixture fraction and velocity fields) within the measurement uncertainty for a wide range of parametric variations, verifying that a Diesel spray becomes momentum controlled and has a Gaussian profile. A required input to the model is the jet angle, which is obtained experimentally. Although an expected result for a gas jet, this is the first time that combined datasets of velocity and…
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Study on the effects on Diesel LTC combustion of 2-EHN as cetane improver

Universite D'Orleans-Fabrice Foucher
Université d'Orleans-Richard Oung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1125
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study Diesel and LTC combustion. We evaluated the 2-EthylHexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) as Cetane improver distributed by VeryOne@ on the combustion of six diesel fuel prepared from a low Cetane Number (CN) diesel fuel (CN of 43.7) and two biodiesel mixed at 20% with the low Cetane number diesel fuel : Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester (RME). Each fuels doped with the 2-EHN were prepared to meet the minimum European CN, 51. LTC strategies could provide low NOx emission without thermal efficiency deterioration. The study investigated engine operation at loads of 2, 6 and 10 bar IMEP at engine speed of 1250 rpm, 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm and the impact against synthetic EGR up to 30%. The low-temperature decomposition of 2-EHN, resulting in the oxidation of the fuel, makes it possible to achieve a very low cycle-to-cycle variation of the IMEP even at very low load or at a very high rate of EGR. From kinetic mechanism analysis, we had shown that…
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Performance and Emissions of an Ammonia-Fueled SI Engine with Hydrogen Enrichment

Universite D'Orleans-Pierre BREQUIGNY, Christine Rousselle
Université D'Orleans-Charles Lhuillier
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
While the optimization of the internal combustion engine (ICE) remains a very important topic, alternative fuels are also expected to play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emissions. High energy densities and handling ease are their main advantages amongst other energy carriers. Ammonia (NH3) additionally contains no carbon and has a worldwide existing transport and storage infrastructure. It could be produced directly from renewable electricity, water and air, and is thus currently considered as a smart energy carrier and combustion fuel. However, ammonia presents a low combustion intensity and the risk of elevated nitrogen-based emissions, thus rendering in-depth investigation of its suitability as an ICE fuel necessary.In the present study, a recent single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/hydrogen/air mixtures at various hydrogen fractions, equivalence ratios and intake pressures. A small hydrogen fraction is used as combustion promoter and might be generated in-situ through NH3 catalytic or heat-assisted dissociation. The in-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are recorded and analyzed. Results show that ammonia is a very suitable fuel for…
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RCCI Combustion Regime Transitions in a Single-Cylinder Optical Engine and a Multi-Cylinder Metal Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Universite D'Orleans-Christine Mounaim Rousselle
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Martin Wissink, Scott Curran
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0088
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.To study charge preparation phenomena that dictate regime transitions, two different optical diagnostics are applied in a single-cylinder heavy-duty optical engine, and conventional engine diagnostics are applied in a multi-cylinder, light-duty all-metal engine. Both engines are operated with iso-octane and n-heptane as the low- and high-reactivity fuels, respectively. The iso-octane fuel fraction delivers 80% of the total fuel energy, the global equivalence ratio is 0.35, and no exhaust gas recirculation is used. In the optical engine, single-shot, band-pass infrared (IR)…
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