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Fuel Cell-Based Powertrain Analysis for Tramway Systems

Università della Calabria-Petronilla Fragiacomo, Francesco Piraino
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a comparison of three different hybrid powertrains is analysed. The numerical model is used to simulate powertrain behaviour in rail application, on a pre-set drive cycle, composed of many acceleration and decelerations, in order to test the components features.The numerical model is dynamic and it is implemented in Matlab-Simulink environmental.A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (FC) is used; it is the most used in transport applications, thanks to its lower temperature compared to the other fuel cell types, which allows fast start up operation and rapid demand changes. A standard supercapacitor (SC), given by higher power density, is utilized as the energy storage system (ESS), Regarding the battery (B), two types are considered, because the battery is used both as prime mover and main component of the ESS; Li-ion batteries are chosen, owing to their good trade-off between specific power and energy.Therefore, three configurations, FC-SC, FC-B and B-SC, are analysed.The vehicle model takes into account other components. The regenerative brake system is used to recover energy during the deceleration phases, and the…
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Knock Mitigation by Means of Coolant Control

Università della Calabria-Diego Perrone, Luigi Falbo, Teresa Castiglione, Sergio Bova
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The possibility to mitigate the knock onset by means of a controlled coolant flow rate is investigated. The study is carried out on a small displacement, N.A. 4-valve per cylinder SI engine. The substitution of the standard belt-driven pump with an electrically driven one allows the variation of the coolant flow rate regardless of engine speed and permits, therefore, the adoption of a controlled coolant flow rate. The first set of experimental tests aims at evaluating the engine operating condition and the coolant flow rate, which are more favorable to the knock onset. Starting from this condition, subsequent experimental tests are carried out for transient engine operating conditions, by varying the coolant flow rates and evaluating, therefore, its effects on cylinder pressure fluctuations. In all the experiments, the spark advance and the equivalence ratio are controlled by the ECU according to the production engine map. The results show that the effects of coolant flow rate on in-cylinder pressure fluctuations are not negligible and the implementation of a predictive controller for the management of the coolant…
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Powertrain Thermal Management for CO2 Reduction

Università della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Francesco Rovense, Angelo Algieri, Sergio Bova
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
This work presents a methodology for the optimal thermal management of different powertrain devices, with particular regard to ICEs, power electronic units (IGBT) and PEM Fuel cells. The methodology makes use of Model Predictive Control by means of a zero-dimensional model for the heat transfer between the device and the coolant. The control is based on the careful monitoring of the coolant thermal state by means of a metrics for the occurrence of nucleate boiling. The introduction of an electrically driven pump for the control of the coolant flow rate is considered. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is presented with reference to an ICE operation. Experimental tests show the advantages of the methodology during warm-up, under fully warmed operation and for the avoidance of after-boiling.
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A Model Predictive Approach to Avoid Coolant After-Boiling in ICE

Università della Calabria-Teresa Castiglione, Pietropaolo Morrone, Sergio Bova
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The after-boiling phenomenon in internal combustion engines can occur when the engine is suddenly switched-off after a period of prolonged high-load operation. In this case, the coolant flow rate stops while the engine wall temperature is quite high; therefore, some evaporation occurs, pressure in the cooling circuit increases and part of the coolant is lost through the radiator relief valve. The control of the coolant flow rate by means of an electric pump instead of the standard belt driven one offers the possibility of overcoming this issue. In the present paper, a model-based control of the coolant flow rate is proposed in conjunction with the adoption of an electric pump in the engine cooling system. Experimental tests and simulations have been carried out starting from high speed-high load engine operation; the engine was then brought to idle and, shortly after, switched-off. A comparison with the adoption of the standard belt-driven pump in the cooling system lay-out is presented in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
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Intelligent Alternator Employment To Reduce Co2 Emission and to Improve Engine Performance

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Università della Calabria-Alessandro Casavola PhD
Fiat Powertrain SPA-Iolanda Montalto, Domenico Tavella lng, Ferdinando De Cristofaro
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2444
Published 2012-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In modern internal combustion engines a greater reduction of CO₂ emissions is required in order to significantly reduce fuel consumption and minimize the emissions of polluting gases, allowing them to fall within the strict limits set by current regulations. In a conventional engine control system, it is not possible to optimize the efficiency of the alternator in terms of emissions and fuel consumption, due to a constant voltage which is imposed and is not modifiable. On the contrary, in a system capable of controlling the voltage of the alternator, referring to such an alternator as "smart" hereafter, it would be possible to optimize its efficiency as a function of the vehicle/engine working points. This system requires first and foremost a communication protocol between the alternator and engine control unit, and a special sensor that gets data on the charging status of the battery.In this chapter a management strategy is proposed for regulating the alternator regulation voltage in order to maximize its efficiency on the basis of the engine and vehicle conditions. This is done by…
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A new firmware controller for a total optical access single-cylinder engine and test bed for LDV and Schlieren combustion studies

Università della Calabria-G. A. Danieli, P. A. Meo, S. Pallone, L. Silletta
Published 2001-09-23 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
The purpose of the paper is the description of the new electronic control strategy for a total optical access single-cylinder engine designed for LDV and Schlieren combustion studies. The engine is characterized by the presence of valves, ignition and electronically controlled injection, and is driven by a Siemens electric motor controlled by a Simoreg controller. Formerly the control system was realized by a program written in Labview language that, through an ATMIO16E-2 board and an external board mainly acts as an interface between the computer and the various electronic actuators. Few other functions, beside the optical coupling between computer and actuators, were incorporated in the external board, such as dividing by two the encoder's trigger to obtain four- stroke operation, analogue integration of the air flow-rate transducer, and the generation of an analogue signal condensing all actuation commands for post- process control of the experiments. The need, however, to operate other functions also during the engine's working cycle, such as computing airflow rates and consequently injection duration, and DMA activation, in some instances was causing…