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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…
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Measurement and Analysis of the Operations of Drayage Trucks in the Houston Area in Terms of Activities and Exhaust Emissions

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl Fulper
Eastern Research Group, Inc.-Alan P. Stanard, Sandeep Kishan, Michael Sabisch
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0007
Published 2018-05-22 by SAE International in United States
The effects of exhaust emissions on public welfare have prompted the US Environmental Protection Agency to take various actions toward understanding, modeling, and reducing air pollution from vehicles. This study was performed to better understand exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel-powered tractor-trailer trucks that operate in drayage service, which involves the moving of shipping containers to or from port terminals. The study involved the use of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to measure both gaseous and particulate matter (PM) mass emission rates and record various vehicle and engine parameters from the test trucks as they performed their normal drayage service. These measurements were supplemented with port terminal gate entry/exit logs for all drayage trucks entering the two Port of Houston Authority container terminals. The datasets were combined to analyze model year characteristics of drayage trucks over time, evaluate port visit frequencies and durations, assess geographic distributions of trucks that perform port service, and estimate the pollutant emissions related to drayage operations. When compared to certification results, measured pollutant emissions generally exceeded certification standards in terms of…
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Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Anthony Neam, Joseph McDonald, Kevin Newman
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ). This paper presents controls development, modeling results, and model validation for simulations of a vehicle with a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator (BISG) mild hybrid electric vehicle and an initial model design for a 48 V inline on-axis P2-configuration mild hybrid electric vehicle. Both configurations were modeled with a MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow tool, which has been integrated into EPA’s ALPHA vehicle model and was also used to model components within Gamma Technology GT-DRIVE simulations.…
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Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Joseph McDonald, Stanislav Bohac, Paul Dekraker, Andrew Moskalik
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0319
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.This article documents the test results for idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation, as well as motoring torque, wide-open throttle (WOT) torque, and fuel consumption during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. Particular attention is given to characterizing enrichment control during high load engine operation. Results are used to create complete engine fuel consumption and efficiency maps and estimate CO2…
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Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0433
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks. Resistances and capacitances were calculated using test data from an 8 Ah, 0.4 kWh, 48V (nominal) lithium-ion battery obtained from a Tier 1 automotive supplier, A123 Systems, and developed specifically for 48V mild hybrid vehicle applications. The A123 Systems battery has 14 pouch-type lithium-ion cells arranged in a 14 series and 1 parallel (14S1P) configuration. The RC battery model…
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Analysis of Evaporative and Exhaust-Related On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Readiness Monitors and DTCs Using I/M and Roadside Data

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl Fulper
Eastern Research Group, Inc.-Michael Sabisch, Meredith Weatherby, Sandeep Kishan
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-01-0001
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
Under contract to the EPA, Eastern Research Group analyzed light-duty vehicle OBD monitor readiness and diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) using inspection and maintenance (I/M) data from four states. Results from roadside pullover emissions and OBD tests were also compared with same-vehicle I/M OBD results from one of the states. Analysis focused on the evaporative emissions control (evap) system, the catalytic converter (catalyst), the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heater (O2 system). Evap and catalyst monitors had similar overall readiness rates (90% to 95%), while the EGR and O2 systems had higher readiness rates (95% to 98%). Approximately 0.7% to 2.5% of inspection cycles with a “ready” evap monitor had at least one stored evap DTC, but DTC rates were under 1% for the catalyst and EGR systems, and under 1.1% for the O2 system, in the states with enforced OBD programs. Monitor readiness decreased, and DTC rates increased, as vehicles aged. DTCs were typically limited to a small subset of all possible DTCs for any particular system. For…
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Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2768
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards.This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing. This paper discusses a numerical scheme by which GEM could interpolate these cycle average results instead of the steady-state map the agencies proposed. This paper explores this alternative via simulation and numerical analysis. Engine and powertrain testing of this alternative are described a companion SAE Technical Paper entitled “Alternative…
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Wind Tunnel Evaluation of Potential Aerodynamic Drag Reductions from Trailer Aerodynamic Component Combinations

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Sam Waltzer, Julie Hawkins, Arvon Mitcham, Dennis W. Johnson
Auto Research Center LLC-Angus Lock
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The use of devices to reduce aerodynamic drag on large trailers and save fuel in long-haul, over-the-road freight operations has spurred innovation and prompted some trucking fleets to use them in combinations to achieve even greater gains in fuel-efficiency. This paper examines aerodynamic performance and potential drag reduction benefits of using trailer aerodynamic components in combinations based upon wind tunnel test data.Representations of SmartWay-verified trailer aerodynamic components were tested on a one-eighth scale model of a class 8 sleeper tractor and a fifty three foot, van trailer model. The open-jet wind tunnel employed a rolling floor to reduce floor boundary layer interference. The drag impacts of aerodynamic packages are evaluated for both van and refrigerated trailers. Additionally, the interactions between individual aerodynamic devices is investigated. Results indicate that combinations of devices can provide trailer aerodynamic drag reductions of up to twenty one percent in wind-averaged conditions. Van and refrigerated trailer configurations show relatively similar aerodynamic performance with refrigerated trailers seeing greater drag reductions in certain cross-wind conditions. The combinations investigated in this study indicate that…
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Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) for Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin A. Newman, Paul Dekraker, Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Prashanth Gururaja
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2771
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
In designing a regulatory vehicle simulation program for determining greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption, it is necessary to estimate the performance of technologies, verify compliance with the regulatory standards, and estimate the overall benefits of the program. The agencies (EPA/NHTSA) developed the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) to serve these purposes. GEM is currently being used to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the Phase 1 rulemaking for all heavy-duty vehicles in the United States except pickups and vans, which require a chassis dynamometer test for certification. While the version of the GEM used in Phase 1 contains most of the technical and mathematical features needed to run a vehicle simulation, the model lacks sophistication. For example, Phase 1 GEM only models manual transmissions and it does not include engine torque interruption during gear shifting. The engine control is simplified and does not include fuel cut-off during decelerations and the agencies pre-specified the engine fuel maps. These simplifications are acceptable as far as certification is concerned, since the Phase 1 certification…
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Disassembly of Small Engine Catalytic Converters and Analysis of Washcoat Material for Platinum Group Metals by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Jennifer Suggs, Benjamin Burns, Richard Martinez, Don Smith, Amelie Isin
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-9078
Published 2014-06-02 by SAE International in United States
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) has developed a test method for the analysis of washcoat material in small engine catalytic converters. Each small engine catalytic converter contains a metallic monolith. Each metallic monolith is removed from its outer casing, manually disassembled, and then separated into washcoat and substrate. The washcoat material is analyzed for platinum group metals (PGMs) using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Results from the XRF analysis are used to calculate PGM ratios in the washcoat. During monolith disassembly, care is taken to minimize loss of washcoat or substrate, but some material is inevitably lost. The recovered washcoat mass does not necessarily equal the quantity of washcoat that was present in the intact catalytic converter. A maximum washcoat mass can be estimated by combining the masses of the recovered washcoat and the material loss during monolith disassembly. PGM concentrations, the recovered washcoat mass, the estimated maximum washcoat mass, and the monolith volume are used to calculate the PGM loading value range for the catalytic converter.
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