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High Efficiency and Low Emissions from a Port-Injected Engine with Neat Alcohol Fuels

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew Brusstar, Mark Stuhldreher, David Swain, William Pidgeon
Published 2002-10-21 by SAE International in United States
Ongoing work with methanol- and ethanol-fueled engines at the EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory has demonstrated improved brake thermal efficiencies over the baseline diesel engine and low steady state NOx, HC and CO, along with inherently low PM emissions. In addition, the engine is expected to have significant system cost advantages compared with a similar diesel, mainly by virtue of its low-pressure port fuel injection (PFI) system. While recognizing the considerable challenge associated with cold start, the alcohol-fueled engine nonetheless offers the advantages of being a more efficient, cleaner alternative to gasoline and diesel engines.The unique EPA engine used for this work is a turbocharged, PFI spark-ignited 1.9L, 4-cylinder engine with 19.5:1 compression ratio. The engine operates unthrottled using stoichiometric fueling from full power to near idle conditions, using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and intake manifold pressure to modulate engine load. As a result, the engine, operating on methanol fuel, demonstrates better than 40% brake thermal efficiency from 6.5 to 15 bar BMEP at speeds ranging from 1200 to 3500 rpm, while achieving…
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Introduction of Biomass as Renewable Energy Component of Future Transportation Fuels

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Robert H. Borgwardt
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Biomass is a potential source of renewable fuel energy, but faces several practical barriers. The cost of producing hydrogen by gasification of biomass, using natural gas as cofeedstock, is compared with gasoline as fuel for fuel cell vehicles. Methanol is considered as an essential initial step toward a hydrogen infrastructure because its cost would be competitive with petroleum fuels, its production technology is similar to that of hydrogen, and it is compatible with existing refueling infrastructure with minimum modification. The economic components of these fuel options are examined from the perspective of national interests and goals to assess their efficacy for reduction of long-term environmental impacts, dependence on imports, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions.
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Evaluation of Ikon®-12 Refrigerant for Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-James J. Jetter, N. Dean Smith
Acurex Environmental Corp.-Krich Ratanaphruks, Angelita S. Ng, Michael W. Tufts, Francis R. Delafield
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
A proprietary refrigerant, called Ikon®-12, was evaluated as an alternative to HFC (hydrofluorocarbon)-134a for automotive air conditioning. The evaluation was motivated by concern over the relatively high global warming potential of HFC-134a. In preliminary tests. Ikon®-12 was found to be compatible with a polyolester lubricant and engineering materials. Refrigeration capacity and efficiency for Ikon®-12 compared favorably to those for HFC-134a. In a preliminary durability test, Ikon®-12 refrigerant showed no significant chemical breakdown after extended operation with an elevated compressor discharge temperature. Further testing would be required to determine if stability and materials compatibility are acceptable for long-term use.
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Evaluation of Methods to Determine Catalyst Efficiency in the Inspection/Maintenance Process

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Edward L. Glover, Jan Mickelsen
Automotive Testing Labs., Inc.-Dennis McClement
Published 1996-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Two new, low cost methods used to identify inefficient or damaged catalytic converters were evaluated on in-use vehicles. The first technique was a non-intrusive propane injection catalyst test procedure developed by General Motors as part of their overall diagnostic strategy. The second technique utilized an Olympus fiber-optic borescope to visually assess the condition of catalytic converter substrates. Results from the two new techniques were compared against those from standard modal catalyst testing and IM240 tailpipe emission testing.The test results from seventy vehicles show the propane injection test to be generally effective at discriminating between converters with high and low conversion efficiencies. The fiber-optic borescope was less successful in identification of inefficient catalysts. This is because some catalyst failures are not readily identifiable while others have identifiable problems, but continue to perform at reasonable efficiencies.
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Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Keith D. Mason
BASF Corp.-Richard J. Dauksys
Published 1995-10-01 by SAE International in United States
An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
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Observations Concerning Current Motor Vehicle Emissions

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-John German
Published 1995-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A large database of second-by-second emissions and engine operating parameters has been gathered on 1992-1994 model year vehicles as part of the FTP Revision Study. The results provide insight about the impact various engine operating parameters have on engine-out emissions and catalyst conversion efficiency of modern, fuel-injected vehicles. The discussion consists primarily of observations made directly from the data, along with some background information to facilitate understanding by people without detailed technical backgrounds.Air/fuel ratio was the dominant influence on engine-out CO and NOx emissions, as well as HC and CO catalyst conversion efficiency. Brake specific engine-out HC emissions were influenced primarily by the block temperature and by deceleration. NOx catalyst conversion efficiency was influenced both by the air/fuel ratio and by micro-transient fuel control.
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Round Robin Analysis of Alcohol and Carbonyl Synthetic Exhaust Samples - Coordinating Research Council

W. F. Biller, S. B. Tejada, W. O. Siegl, D. Rosenhamer, M. S. Newkirk, R. J. Crowley
Automotive Testing Labs.-W. L. Clark
Published 1994-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Recent changes in regulatory practices have brought about a need for speciated analysis of the volatile organic components of vehicle exhaust. The purpose of this study was to allow interested laboratories to participate in a Round Robin so that each could assess their speciation methodologies. “Synthetic exhaust” samples were prepared of mixed DNPH-carbonyl standards deposited on DNPH cartridges, and solutions of alcohol in water. The fifteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. The results described in this paper consider only variability associated with the analytical measurement of samples that have already been collected in impingers or on cartridges. In general, alcohols (methanol and ethanol) were quantified without difficulty. With the exception of acrolein and crotonaldehyde, the quantitation of the carbonyl samples was very good considering the variety of analytical methods that were used.
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Ozone Precursor Emissions from Alternatively Fueled Vehicles

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Peter Gabele
Published 1994-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Smog chamber tests were conducted using automobile exhaust gas generated during emission tests with a group of alternatively fueled vehicles. The tests were designed to evaluate the photochemical characteristics of organic emissions from vehicles operating on compressed natural gas, methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, and reformulated gasolines. A description of the emission characterization portion of the study is presented in this paper to assist in better understanding the chamber experiments described in a companion paper. The study is part of a larger program in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is examining the effects of alternative fuel usage on emissions and fuel economy.
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Performance Evaluation of Electric Dynamometers

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl M. Paulina, John F. Schwarz
Published 1994-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency has recently purchased electric dynamometers for use in emission and fuel economy testing of light duty vehicles. These dynamometers are equipped with a single large diameter roll (1.219 meter, 48 inch) and electric inertia/road load simulation capability. The dynamometers are required to pass a series of robust performance requirements. The evaluation of the system performance was based on data acquisition and analysis completely independent of the dynamometer's operational and analysis software. An independent test system was used for verification of the dynamometer's operational features, control, and error reporting software. Testing was performed following the dynamometer installation at the EPA National Vehicle Fuel and Emission Laboratory (NVFEL). EPA performed evaluation tests, analyzed the data, and graphically displayed the results using commercially available microcomputer hardware and programs.EPA designed the test data acquisition system and assembled the components. The data acquisition system specifications, final component build-up documentation, overall capabilities, and various methods of numerical or statistical analysis are presented.The testing program consisted of accelerations, coastdowns, steady speeds, and the Federal Test Procedure Bag 1…
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Performance Tests of a Large-Roll Chassis Dynamometer with AC Flux-Vector PEU and Friction-Compensated Bearings

U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-C. Don Paulsell
Horiba Instruments, Inc.-William G. Mears, Severino D'Angelo
Published 1993-03-01 by SAE International in United States
Performance testing was done on a 1.219 m (48 in) roll diameter chassis dynamometer to validate its compliance with EPA specifications. The testing procedure and results are presented. Tests include time, speed, acceleration and torque calibration verification, load control response time, parasitic loss compensation and stability, base mechanical inertia verification, road load curve simulation and repeatability, automatic road coastdown coefficient matching, and overall simulation accuracy during severe acceleration and emission test cycles. These testing methods provide an objective and comprehensive evaluation of chassis roll dynamometer performance.
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