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Development of New Hybrid Transaxle for Mid-Size Sports Utility Vehicles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Seitaro Nobuyasu, Shigetsugu Iwata, Masabumi Nishigaya, Yoshiteru Hagino, Masatoshi Ito, Hiroshi Aihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0850
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, automotive industries are active to develop electric in response to the energy conservation and environment problems. We developed the new hybrid transaxle for Mid-Size SUV to improve fuel efficiency and power performance. The transaxle was developed based on the new development strategy TNGA (Toyota New Global Architecture). By adopting technologies for transaxle overall length shortening, installation in same width of Mid-Size sedan engine compartment have been realized while improving the motor output. This paper will explain technologies about new motor structure and new mount structure for overall length shortening, and furthermore, noise reduction toward the mount structure.
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
High metallic silver colors using thin, smooth aluminum flake pigments are typically adopted for the luxury grades by each car manufacturer. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(N.V.) content and high aluminum flake pigment content are generally known to be necessary to achieve high metallic appearance designs. However, poor distribution of the aluminum flake pigments can cause mottling. In addition, a high concentration of aluminum flake pigments can result in a weak coating. Therefore, current paint systems are limited in the degree of high metallic appearance design that is possible. As a countermeasure to those problems, we investigated whether cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid can function as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it forms strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces when it is dispersed for waterborne paint. For example, viscosity versus shear rate testing of an aqueous solution of 0.4wt% CNF and less than N.V. 5wt% showed a response curve similar…
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Super High Transfer Efficiency Application for Body Coating

Toyota Motor Corporation-Yuki Murai, Takahito Kondo, Shinji Tani, Wataru Murata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0901
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to achieve the Toyota Environmental Challenge of 2050, we have developed an innovative coating system that achieves 100% coating efficiency. In order to reduce paint loss in the painting process, it is necessary to eliminate overdust and bounce dust. The most important point is how to spray (atomization, particle flight, adhesion) without assist air. We have developed an “super high transfer efficiency system” that eliminates the need for assist air. We continue to challenge the development of innovative technologies to view the paint shop as clean and eco-friendly.
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A Study of Mechanism of Engine Idling Rattle Noise in Hybrid Transaxles

Toyota Motor Corporation-Tomoya Takeuchi, Kenji Miyasaka, Masatoshi Ito, Shingo Nakamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0421
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quietness is one of the most important characteristics for Hybrid Electric Vehicles quality. Reduction of the rattle noise caused by torque fluctuation of the running internal combustion engine can contribute to get a customer satisfaction. Toyota Hybrid System(THS) also has same requirement. Especially in the engine idling condition, the rattle noise occurs unevenly, regardless of an engine combustion cycle. It is necessary to study the mechanism and reduce the rattle noise. In case of the lower engine torque range, lower torsional stiffness can get better damping characteristics as the manual transaxle done. However, the rattle noise occurs easily in the situation of the engine start/stop; comparatively bigger torque spike inputs to the torsional system; especially THS which has the engine start/stop motor/generator in the transaxle. It is necessary to analyze the dynamics of the related parts in the lower torque range of the engine operation and need to find the new technology satisfying the both situation. In this paper, I explain how to clarify the mechanism of the rattle noise occurrence in the engine idling…
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Development of Power Control Unit for Compact-class Hybrid Vehicle

Toyota Motor Corporation-Toshio Ikeyama, Keitaro Ishikawa, Natsuki Nozawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0456
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new compact-class hybrid vehicle (HV). This vehicle incorporates a new hybrid system for the improvement of fuel efficiency. For this system, a new Power Control Unit (PCU) is developed. The feature of the PCU is downsizing, lightweight, and high efficiency. In expectation of rapid popularization of HV, the aptitude for mass production is also improved. The PCU, which plays an important role in the new system, is our main focus in this paper. Its development is described.
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Development of Quantitative Fuel Film Distribution Measurement by LIEF Technique and Application to Gasoline Spray

Toyota Motor Corporation-Sachio Mori, Hiroyuki Sakai, Shinichiro Nogawa, Koichiro Nakatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1159
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
From the point of global and local environment, internal combustion engine is facing the significant improvement of exhaust emission. Especially, the reduction of unburned HC (hydrocarbon) from fuel film on liner under cold condition is important. In this study, at first, quantitative fuel film measurement technique by using LIEF (Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence) was developed. For the light source, 4th harmonic pulse YAG laser (266nm) was used. For the tracer, the combination of DMA(N,N-Dimethylaniline) and naphthalene was used and proper concentration for quantitative measurement was decided by calibration test. In LIEF, by the measurement of fluorescence only from the liquid phase, it becomes possible to obtain the distribution of fuel film. In order to evaluate the effect of fuel film to exhaust HC emission from engine, the film distribution was measured with glass liner. For the injector, prototype 6 hole gasoline injector was used. For the evaluation of total amount of fuel film on liner that was made by side mounted 6 hole injector, the film distribution image was take from both of exhaust and…
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Analysis of Unburned Hydrocarbon Generated from Wall Under Lean Combustion

Toyota Motor Corporation-Hiroyuki Sakai, Sei Sato, Sachio Mori, Shinichiro Nogawa, Koichiro Nakatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0295
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The location and cause of unburned HC is analyzed by CFD and LIEF. Under lean combustion, the surface flame quenching occurs over a wide range of walls and large amount of HC is generated. The quenching distance and HC can be organized by laminar combustion speed and boost pressure, those are related to thermal boundary layer thickness.
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Development of Three-way Catalysts with Advanced Coating Layer

Toyota Motor Corporation-Yoshinori Saito, Isao Chinzei
Cataler Corporation-Minoru Ito, Shunsuke Oishi, Takuya Okuda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0653
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to protect the atmospheric environment, further improvement of catalyst performance is required. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of resource risk, it is necessary to reduce the amount of precious metal used as active sites of the catalyst. Therefore, we have developed a high performance three-way catalyst with advanced coating layer to achieve the reduction of precious metal usage. In recent years, fuel efficiency improvement technologies such as a high compression ratio and a large amount of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have attracted attention. These technologies generally tend to increase the ratio of HC to NOx in exhaust gas. In order to improve the HC purifying activity of the catalyst, we focused on the Pd loading depth in the coating layer. By controlling the loading depth on the surface of the coating layer, Pd with high HC purification activity is easily in contact with exhaust gas. And it became possible to purify efficiently even under high Space Velocity (SV) conditions. Subsequently, we focused on the coating structure to maximize purifying activity and…
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Low-Emission and Fuel-Efficient Exhaust System with new Air-fuel Ratio Sensor

Toyota Motor Corporation-Go Hayashita, Kazuki Takahashi, Keiichiro Aoki
DENSO CORPORATION-Makoto Ito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0655
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews an exhaust emission control system using a new Air-fuel ratio (hereafter, A/F) sensor that contributes to low emissions and low fuel consumption of gasoline engines. The first technical highlight is that the newly designed A/F sensor enables feedback control immediately after the engine starts at any temperature. In order to achieve the delay-less feedback control, it was important not only that the sensor was not broken, but also that the sensor characteristics are not affected by the condensed water in the exhaust pipe. Specifically, the developed protective layer technology with water repellent function in the sensor element was effective in achieving both reliability and characteristics. The second highlight is the reduction of sensor power consumption. Since the A/F sensor is usually kept at 700-800 ° C, it is one of the most power consuming parts of the engine. The new A/F sensor has the highest thermal efficiency by low-temperature activation. In addition, for vehicles such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) that the engine stops intermittently, the sensor control method was built to…
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Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuo Yamamori, Yuta Uematsu, Kazuyoshi Manabe, Itsuki Miyata
JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Shintaro Kusuhara, Yu Misaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1425
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the automotive industry, electrification of vehicles such as HVs, PHVs, FCs and EVs is in progress in order to cope with the serious global environmental problems. On the other hand, in 2030, 70% of vehicles are expected to be equipped with internal combustion engines. Therefore, further fuel consumption improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel consumption, but lowering the viscosity is also a concern for decreased in the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel efficiency and reliability. We have developed new 0W-8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity, and achieved an improvement in fuel efficiency by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For new this oil, we reduced the friction force under boundary lubrication by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. This oil film former is increased the film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhances the friction reduction effect of MoDTC. By…