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Numerical Assessment of Controlling the Interval between Two Heat-Release Peaks for Noise Reduction in Split-injection PCCI Combustion

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara
Keio University-Mina Nishi, Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
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Development of New Toyota D-Series Turbocharger for GD Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiromu Iwata, Manabu Ishikawa
Toyota Motor Corporation-Takashi Tsukiyama, Koichi Yonezawa
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-1969
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
There is increasing demand for highly functional diesel engine turbochargers capable of meeting Euro 6 emissions regulations while improving dynamic performance and fuel economy. However, since these requirements cannot be easily satisfied through refinements of existing technology, Toyota Motor Corporation has developed the new D-series turbocharger for initial installation in its GD diesel engine. The higher efficiency and wider operation range of the new turbocharger enabled the amount of the turbine flow capacity to be reduced by 30%, while helping to improve dynamic response and fuel economy. The mechanism causing the generation of fuel deposits in the fuel injection system upstream of the turbocharger, which was adopted for compliance with emissions regulations, was analyzed and fundamental countermeasures were applied. The result is a new highly functional turbocharger with greatly enhanced reliability.
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Universal Diesel Engine Simulator (UniDES) 2nd Report: Prediction of Engine Performance in Transient Driving Cycle Using One Dimensional Engine Model

Toyota Industries Corporation-Toshihiro Tani
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhisa Inagaki, Matsuei Ueda
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this research is to develop the diesel combustion simulation (UniDES: Universal Diesel Engine Simulator) that incorporates multiple-injection strategies and in-cylinder composition changes due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and that is capable of high speed calculation. The model is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) cycle simulation, and represents a multiple-injection strategy using a multi-zone model and inhomogeneity using a probability density function (PDF) model. Therefore, the 0D cycle simulation also enables both high accuracy and high speed.This research considers application to actual development. To expand the applicability of the simulation, a model that accurately estimates nozzle sac pressure with various injection quantities and common rail pressures, a model that accounts for the effects of adjacent spray interaction, and a model that considers the NOx reduction phenomenon under high load conditions were added. In addition, engine, vehicle, and driver models using the commercial GT-Power code, and an electronic control unit (ECU) model were combined to predict transient phenomena.These models were used to make transient predictions for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The…
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Development of a New 2.0-Liter Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engine

Toyota Industries Corporation-Masaaki Okamoto, Tsutomu Oda, Keisuke Manabe
Toyota Motor Corporation-Junji chisaki, Kazuya Yoshijima, Takashi Kikuchi, Shoichiro Morinaka, Kenichi Yamada
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Toyota Motor Corporation aims to develop vehicles that are both fun to drive and fuel efficient, using highly reliable, low cost, and fundamental technology. This approach focuses on the accumulation of incremental improvements to combustion characteristics and friction, making the best use of the maximum potential of the displacement of a new 2.0-liter fuel-efficient diesel engine. This new engine has been launched in several markets around the world for the Avensis, the Auris, the RAV4, and the Verso since November of 2011. This paper presents an outline of this new engine and its technology.
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Concept using Double Premixed Combustion: D-SPIA

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida, Tsutomu Kawae, Takeshi Tanaka, Hideki Aoki, Yoshio Sugiyama, Tsutomu Umehara
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A new concept, Diesel Staggered Premixed Ignition with Accelerated oxidation (D-SPIA) was developed for lower exhaust emissions and carbon dioxide (CO₂) and this is based on divided fuel injection before top dead center (TDC). D-SPIA is a result of investigating various diesel combustion methods. Although the D-SPIA is a type of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), it has a distinct feature of double premixed combustion by optimum injection quantities and staggered timing, which can achieve an ideal heat release rate for low pollutant emissions and fuel consumption.Based on this concept, second injection timing and the proportion of the second fuel injection quantity play significant roles to reduce smoke, and hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The second injection timing has a close relation to the premixed time of the second fuel injection and smoke level. The in-cylinder temperature at the second injection timing, which is related to the premixed time of the second fuel injection, is affected by the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) or the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) of the first fuel injection.…
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Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

SAE International Journal of Engines

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Kawae
Nippon Soken, Inc.-Masaaki Kono
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1393
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity.Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.However, in diffusive combustion, especially at full load, a low-penetrating spray potentially causes higher soot emissions and results in lower maximum torque. In this case, item (2) is applied to recover full-load performance. The lower compression ratio enables diffusive combustion phasing to…
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High-pressure Metal Hydride Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicles

Toyota Industries Corporation-K. Toh, K. Fujita, A. Kumano, H. Kubo
Toyota Motor Corporation-D. Mori, K. Hirose, N. Haraikawa, T. Takiguchi, T. Shinozawa, T. Matsunaga
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
High-pressure metal hydride (MH) tank has been designed based on a 35 MPa cylinder vessel. The heat exchanger module is integrated into the tank. Its advantage over high-pressure cylinder vessels is its large hydrogen storage capacity, for example 9.5 kg with a tank volume of 180 L by Ti25Cr50V20Mo5 alloy. Cruising range is about 900 km, over 3 times longer than that of a 35 MPa cylinder vessel system with the same volume. The hydrogen-charging rate of this system is equal to the 35 MPa cylinders without any external cooling facility. And release of hydrogen at 243 K is enabled due to the use of hydrogen-absorbing alloy with high-dissociation pressure, for example Ti35Cr34Mn31 alloy.
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A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhiro Akihama, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Matsuei Ueda
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level. Retarding of the ignition timing is effective for reducing the CN, however, misfires become a major problem. In the second study, from the results of CFD simulation, it was cleared that a local hot temperature spot promoted the…
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Thermal Simulation of Power Devices in the Power Supply for Automobiles

Toyota Industries Corporation-Masato Kabetani, Makoto Miwa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-05-0048
Published 2006-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A methodology of modelling thermal contact resistance in thermo-fluid analysis software is developed to estimate power device's temperature, the most important value in thermal management of automobile power supply, with accuracy.To reduce thermal contact resistance of power device, silicon rubber sheet is used for insulation. Rubber sheet can't fill air gap in contact surface completely, so contact pressure has a big influence on thermal contact resistance. The thermal contact resistance was modeled by three steps; 1) Obtain the contact pressure profile by contact simulation, 2) Calculate thermal contact resistance from empirical formula, 3) Fill the contact surface with 250 small plate objects, and change its thermal conductance by importing thermal contact resistance table.Contact region was tested by impact paper. The reacted area was wider than simulation result in some points, but it agreed on the whole. The difference seems to be caused by the unevenness of the package surface. The developed thermal contact resistance model was applied to the prediction of the power device temperature of DC-DC converter. Even though there were some differences in…
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Inverter-Integrated Electric Compressors for Hybrid Vehicles

Toyota Industries Corporation-Ken Suito
Denso Corporation-Nobuyasu Ioi, Yasuyuki Ohkouchi, Shinichi Ogawa
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Inverter type electric compressors capable of providing cooling capability during engine stop and that do not cause fuel efficiency drop during air conditioning system use are recently being used in hybrid vehicles that have been drawing attention for their low fuel consumption and low emissions. Conventionally, the electric compressor inverter, like other high-voltage devices, was located in a cooling unit known as a power control unit (PCU) box because it requires cooling. However, inverter installation in the PCU box is subject to rigid installation constraints, and there is increasing need to integrate it with the electric compressors. In the present development, we adopted inverter-integrated construction in which the inverter is cooled using suction refrigerant etc., so as to make the electric compressor compact. This enables electric compressor installation in almost the same space as the belt-driven compressors intended for gasoline-engine vehicles, significantly improving electric compressor installability in current vehicles.
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