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Development of a Parametric Model for Burn Rate Estimation in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

The Automotive Research Association of India-Mayur Patne
Rolls-Royce Power Systems AG-Prakash Kamat, Arne Schneemann, Sanjay Patel, Werner Kasper, Andreas Flohr, Gurusathya Rajasekar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In internal combustion engines, rate of fuel burning known as burn rate is a simplified representation of complex in-cylinder combustion process. It is considered as a prime input especially in 1D simulation tool for all important thermodynamic studies. A novel parametric model for prediction of burn rate in heavy duty Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine has been introduced in the present work. A wide range of experimental data with more focus on higher load points with different in-cylinder combustion characteristics is considered and burn rates have been generated using measured pressure trace. Generated burn rates have been studied over different phases of combustion. These burn rate shapes have been analyzed to understand the effect of fuel injection system, air management subsystem parameters along with in-cylinder conditions on combustion. Different mathematical modelling approaches for burn rate approximation like Wiebe function have been studied. Burn rates generated using experimental data have been reproduced using a newly developed mathematical modelling approach. Part of diffusion and late combustion phase has been captured by a unique correlation. This mathematical model…
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Methodology Development for External Aerodynamic Evaluation of a Bus and Its Impact on Fuel Economy along with Experimental Validation

The Automotive Research Association of India-Kishor Udawant, Mahesh Patwardhan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Siddhesh Kanekar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this study is to develop, demonstrate and validate the methodology of external aerodynamic analysis of a State Road Transport bus for prediction of drag coefficient and its impact on fuel consumption with experimental validation. It has been verified that vehicle consumes around 40% of the available engine power to overcome the air drag. This gives us a huge scope to study the effect of aerodynamic drag.Baseline model of State Road Transport Bus was evaluated for estimating fuel consumption using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. The CFD results were validated with the experimental data with less than 10% deviation. Bus design was optimized with an objective of reducing the fuel consumption with parameters like angle of windshield, rounding and tapering corners and rear draft angle. Optimized bus design is also ensured to meet functional specifications as per AIS052. The prototype of the optimized bus design has been tested experimentally as per IS 11921: 1993 standard to estimate fuel consumption. The results obtained from CFD and experimental tests were analyzed and they were found…
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Development of an Innovative Transmission System for Two-Wheelers Using TRIZ Methodology

The Automotive Research Association of India-Enanko Moulick, Kiran Wani
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In a developing country like India, Two-wheelers dominate the automotive market with around 80% market shares. In Indian city traffic conditions, driving a two wheeler is a tiresome job. Manual transmission makes this task even further uncomfortable. So an automatic transmission is a better solution. A new automatic transmission system is developed which can reduce fatigue of drivers. Steps of ARIZ (Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving) were followed. Ideas or concepts for the design were proposed from various fields and were compared for various parameters like size, weight, complexity, manufacturability, feasibility, efficiency and cost. They were also compared with the existing transmission systems. Based upon the results of the comparison, 5 designs were selected and they were analyzed thoroughly. Finally one design was selected. It was further studied in detailed and its improving and worsening features are noted and with the help of contradiction matrix and 40 principles contradictions were removed. S-Curve for the new system is predicted and the effects of the new design on super system are shown with the help of system…
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Experimental Investigations on Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engine Using Methanol - Gasoline Blends

The Automotive Research Association of India-Kamalkishore Vora
VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology-Suresh Devunuri
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The present study discusses the effects of engine combustion, performance and emission features of methanol-gasoline blend fired lean burn Spark Ignition (SI) engine. Performance features such as Brake Power (BP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), tail pipe emissions namely Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Nitrogen Oxide (NO), Carbon di Oxide (CO2) and combustion characteristics viz. in-cylinder pressure, Heat Release Rate (HRR), Cumulative Heat Release (CHR) and variation of mean effective pressure were measured and compared with that of neat gasoline. Experiments were conducted on a modified sole cylinder four-stroke compression engine (Kirloskar TAF1) to operate as SI engine with a compression ratio of 10.5:1. A new manifold injection system and ignition system were developed by replacing the fuel injection pump and injector. The engine is operated at constant speed of 1500 rpm with different methanol proportions (5%, 10%, and 20%) blended to gasoline under part throttle condition at diverse equivalence ratios. Results revealed that with 5% methanol blend, there was an increase of 3.5% and 5.5% in BP and BTE when…
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Dynamic Response Evaluation of a Chassis of a Generator Set Using FEA techniques

The Automotive Research Association of India-Mahesh Anand Patwardhan
Cummins-Muzammil Mohammed Gaffar Gadwal, Sze Kwan Cheah, Anand Fapal
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
A Generator set is comprised of mainly an Engine, Alternator and Chassis. High Horse-Power Generator development is challenging, with lots of complexities in physical and virtual validations. Creating high fidelity analytical model is always beneficial and economical at the design stages as it avoids repetitive tests on various design concepts. This paper reports analytical methods of developing an FEA model of a Generator for locomotive application and its correlation with Test. Highlighted as well are some of the challenges faced in FE modeling of a large Generator model (60 liters engine capacity) with node count of around 4 million.In this technique, Modal Analysis is first performed to capture the dynamic behavior. More than 95 % correlation is achieved between the FEA and test natural frequencies (Bending modes). Harmonic Analysis with Modal Superposition is then applied to understand the dynamic response of a Chassis under the action of engine vibratory loads.In this paper commercial FEA software Ansys was used for evaluating chassis dynamic response using Modal and Harmonic analysis techniques. Engine Cylinder forces like Piston axial,…
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Development of Autonomous Vehicle Controller

The Automotive Research Association of India-Ujjwala Shailesh Karle, Manish Karle, Mangesh Ramesh Saraf
Cognizant Technology Solutions-Mandar Bapat, Madhuri Marathe, Nikhil Khadloya
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous driving is looked upon as solution for future of automotive vehicles. The technology has tremendous possibilities to improve safety, fuel economy, comfort, cost of ownership etc.The project to develop an autonomous controller from scratch was undertaken, with objective to drive under selected test scenarios. The car, modified to drive using this autonomous controller, is able to handle these scenarios. The key scenarios include ability to successfully drive on tracks with well-marked lanes, Follow the route as per selected trip plan file, recognize and follow all traffic road signs, traffic signals en-route, identify other vehicles on the road or pedestrians in the lane and take the appropriate action.The development was carried out using frugal engineering approach. As the Autonomous Vehicle technology is still under development, the standard proven published approaches are not available. The major development tasks include sensor selection and characterization, sensor data processing, software architecture finalization, software development, hardware finalization, software verification and validation, setting up of the simulation setup, vehicle calibration, vehicle deployment and field testing. This paper gives the insight of…
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Comprehensive Investigation of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Polymer for Weathering with the Combination of Different Blends of UV Stabilizers, HALS and Antioxidant

The Automotive Research Association of India-Shamsundara Belavadi Venkataramaiah, Abhay Vijay Mannikar
National Institute of Engineering Mysore-T.N. Shridhar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The use of polymers in automobiles is increasing constantly and this trend is expected to continue. This clearly indicates that polymer are choice of materials in all the application sectors including in Automobile sector. The main properties in selecting the plastics materials as compared to other materials applied in automobiles are the aesthetic of automotive vehicles, their functionality and cost effective solution, as well as fuel efficiency. These materials are offer remarkable range of appealing properties, the effect of climatic conditions on the degradation and performance of these materials is not fully understood. It is necessary to know the variation of the mechanical properties of any polymer component in automobile after exposed to different atmospheric conditions before particular application. Generally when these components are subjected to weathering effects, they are prone to underperform. Therefore to improve their properties over time, different kinds of UV stabilizers, Hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) and Antioxidant are used. However there is a need to study which UV stabilizers is to be used for the automobile applications polymers and what…
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Low Frequency In-Cab Booming Noise Reduction in the Passenger Car

The Automotive Research Association of India-Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth, Atul Annasaheb Gaikwad, Keshav Mutalik
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In-cab booming noise is low frequency (20 Hz∼300 Hz) phenomenon excites the cabin structure, which occurs mainly due to excitations from the powertrain, exhaust system, road input, etc. Annoyance due to booming noise affects the In-cab sound quality, which results in passenger discomfort. A diesel passenger car observed booming noise issue when operated at stationary as well as dynamic run-up conditions.In order to increase passenger comfort, experimental root cause analysis conducted on the vehicle to investigate the dominant sources for the cavity boom. Exhaust hanger and one of the engine mount identified as major reason for the booming noise in the cabin. A detailed study was carried out on dynamic property optimization of rubber hanger and possibility to relocate the hanger to improve the vibration transmissibility. Operational measurements conducted on vehicle by attaching finalized exhaust mount to confirm the significant booming noise reduction in the cabin.
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Method for Prediction of Coffin Manson Parameters from Monotonic Tensile Property for Aluminium 6XXX Series Alloy to Predict Fatigue Life

The Automotive Research Association of India-Ajeet Babu Parasumanna, M Saraf
JNARDDC-Vishwanath Ammu
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Light weighting is significant in for automotive industry as it helps in less fuel consumption and to achieve better performance. Aluminium is a candidate material for light weighting. To design a component made of aluminium material, it is necessary to understand the fatigue performance of the material. In this paper, a study is carried out to understand the fatigue performance of aluminium 6xxx series alloys at an early stage of design without carrying out comprehensive fatigue testing. Coffin Manson Parameters are used to predict fatigue life. This research focusses on determining the gaps in existing models for aluminium alloys by carrying out comprehensive review of various models developed for 6xxx series which uses monotonic tensile data. Two models are developed and the predicted fatigue properties for this class of material are further compared with experimental fatigue, monotonic data and literature. Scatter band is used to show the correlation between the predicted and actual value of fatigue properties. In reversals to failure, 90 % of the data falls within five times scatter band, and in strain…
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Heat-Treatment Process Optimization Using Dilatometry Technique and Simulation Tools

The Automotive Research Association of India-Abhijit Kumbhar, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth
Forging Industry Association-Satyajeet Avinash Kulkarni
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Any metal component undergoes various treatments to get desired shape and desired properties. Some of the important properties are strength, hardness, % elongation etc. which comes under mechanical properties. These properties can be easily achieved through heat-treatment process. Typical example of heat-treatment processes are hardening and tempering in case of steel and aging process in case of aluminium alloys. Some of the new emerging materials viz. micro alloy steel does not require any hardening and tempering if cooling rate is maintained. Heat-treatment cycle depends on material grade and its alloying elements. A heat-treatment cycle for any grade is generally fixed based on conventional methods but they are not optimized. The need of hour is to optimize the heat-treatment cycle to improve productivity and energy consumption. Dilatometer is used to optimize heat-treatment cycle on sample level whereas simulation tools can be used for component level.This paper deals with effective use of heat-treatment simulation supported by Dilatometry technique to optimize heat-treatment cycle for automotive component. A case study of heat-treatment cycle optimization of a forged crankshaft is…
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