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Optimizing Steering Column Layout and UJ Phase Angle to Enhance Vehicle Dynamics Performance

Tata Motors Ltd.-Praneeth Puvvula, Ajit Dubal, Swapnil Salunkhe
Tata Technologies Ltd.-Susheel Ravuri
Published 2019-02-05 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle dynamics is one of the most important vehicle attributes. It is classified into three domains, the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral dynamics. This paper focuses on optimizing the lateral vehicle dynamics which is driven by the straight ahead controllability and cornering controllability of the vehicle. One of the important parameters that dictates these sub-attributes is the steering ratio. Therefore, designing the right steering ratio is critical to meet the vehicle “specific” targets. Significant amount of work has been done by many researchers on variable steering ratio by implementing variable gear ratio (VGR) rack, active steering, and steer-by-wire systems. This paper discusses the methodology and considerations to optimize the steering ratio for a constant gear ratio rack by optimizing the steering column layout, viz., orientation and the phase angle in universal joints. A detailed analysis of steering system layout is done to optimize the steering ratio to enhance the vehicle dynamics performance. Full vehicle-level multibody dynamics (MBD) simulations are done in ADAMS® to compare the vehicle response behavior for different steering ratios in the open-loop objective…
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Development of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Technology for Urban Transport in India

Tata Motors Ltd.-Yogesha S A, Smitan Brahmbhatt, Munusamy Raja, Suresh Arikapudi, Bhaveshkumar Bhut, Jaikumar V
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is considered for automotive applications due to rapid start up, energy efficiency, high power density and less maintenance. In line with National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap of Govt. of India that aims to develop and demonstrate hydrogen powered IC engine and fuel cell based vehicle. TATA Motors Ltd. has designed, developed and successfully demonstrated “Low Floor Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus” which comprises of integrated fuel cell power system, hydrogen storage and dispensing system.The fuel cell power system, converts the stored chemical energy in the hydrogen to DC electrical energy. The power generated is regulated and used for powering the traction motor. The development of fuel cell bus consists of five stages: Powertrain sizing as per vehicle performance targets, fuel cell stack selection and balance of plant design and development, bus integration, hydrogen refueling infrastructure creation and testing of fuel cell bus. Fuel cell stack integrated with balance of components, which includes air subsystem, hydrogen subsystem, and thermal management system and water recovery unit. Integrated fuel cell power system tested…
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Virtual Road Torque Data Collection

Tata Motors Ltd.-Dattatreyudu Mullapudi, Popat Rajput, Mithun Chaskar, Santosh Gosavi
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The traditional method of collecting the Road Torque Data of a vehicle is by instrumenting and running the vehicle on different road terrains. Every time, physical testing becomes tedious & most challenging task due to unavailability of unit under tests, kind of resource required and so on. However, in view of response to the fast emerging technology & limit less competition, it has become mandatory to develop & launch products in market within no time. In recent times, there is increased demand for physical road torque data measurements for a vehicle program based on its application and different powertrain configurations, which clearly shows that unless we front load the data to design it is practically impossible to meet the deadlines. Each of these measurements cost and consumes valuable resources of the company in collecting and analyzing the data. These challenges triggered us to develop a methodology, which will give us quick estimate of the required parameters from road torque data measurements in the absence of physical prototype. The developed methodology will reduce the time required…
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Adhesive Failure Prediction in Crash Simulations

Tata Motors Ltd.-Sivaprasad Koralla, Debabrata Ghosh, Susanta Dey
Tata Technologies Ltd.-Hrishikesh S. Rao, Sourabh Tiwari
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Structural adhesive is a good alternative to provide required strength at joinery of similar and dissimilar materials. Adhesive joinery plays a critical role to maintain structural integrity during vehicle crash scenario. Robust adhesive failure definitions are critical for accurate predictions of structural performance in crash Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations.In this paper, structural adhesive material characterization challenges like comprehensive In-house testing and CAE correlation aspects are discussed. Considering the crash loading complexity, test plan is devised for identification of strength and failure characteristics at 0°, 45°, 75°, 90°, and Peel loading conditions. Coupon level test samples were prepared with high temperature curing of structural adhesive along with metal panels. Test fixtures were prepared to carryout testing using Instron VHS machine under quasi-static and dynamic loading.Various material models available in LSDYNA are studied and MAT169 (*MAT_ARUP_ADHESIVE) material model is selected for adhesive material characterization. Finite Element (FE) models inline to the test conditions were prepared. Sensitivity studies carried out to understand the significance of critical parameters in material model and modelling practices. Test and CAE correlation…
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Design, Simulation & Optimization of an Air Intake System to Reduce Induction Noise

Tata Motors Ltd.-Ujwal Patil, Dnyanesh Rahane
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Air intake system (AIS) plays a major role in reducing the noise level in passenger car compartment, which has become an important requirement due to increasing customer expectation for better in cab noise. The ideal air intake system design should have minimum possible noise at snorkel entry point which ultimately contributes in cabin noise.There are different techniques that are implemented for an air intake system noise reduction e.g. choosing proper location of air entry suction point in engine bay compartment, suitable design for air filter box (volume), duct designs etc. Further design improvement are possible with an addition of tuned resonators in the system.An addition of resonator have major effect seen in reducing air induction noise and to meet target Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). But at the same time, selecting the correct type of resonator, its position & volume, frequency/s band at which resonator is tuned are important parameters.The work presented here describes and compares the simulation results (GT POWER) with the measured SPL levels at different rpm range with different resonator types for Utility…
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AMT Reverse Gear Engagement Dynamics and Control

Tata Motors Ltd.-Gaurang Prajapati, Amar Penta, Prasad Warule
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Now a day’s automated manual transmissions (AMT) are getting popular because of hassle-free gear shifting and improved fuel economy. OEMs are converting their existing manual gearbox to AMT gearbox with solution like hydraulic or electric AMT kit that replaces the manual shift mechanism to automated actuators. Generally, in manual gearbox, the operational principal of reverse gear is sliding mesh. Due to sliding mesh gear arrangement, it can create interruption for gearshift while controlling shift actuators. In this paper, reverse gear shift arrangement and its operational dynamics at different operating condition has been studied and analyzed in detail. Based on status of vehicle, to ease the gearshift, engagement flow process proposed. The control methods that increases probability of smooth and easier shifting in all operating condition discussed in detail. The developed control algorithm discussed along with its implementation on real vehicle and results.
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Gear Shift Quality Parameters Optimization for Critical to Quality Dimensions

SAE International Journal of Engines

Tata Motors Ltd.-Prajwal More, Santosh Deshmane
Tata Technologies Ltd.-Onkar Gurav
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-03-0017
Published 2018-06-20 by SAE International in United States
Gear Shift Quality (GSQ) in passenger cars is one of the sensitive touch points, which has a direct effect on driver fatigue and drivability. In the following article, an attempt has been made to study the variance in Critical to Quality (CTQ) dimensions and their influence on GSQ parameters. CTQ matrix that shows relation between CTQ parameters and GSQ parameters is formed and is analyzed to study process capability. Impact of variance in CTQs on GSQ parameters is studied and finally has resulted intoaTolerance revisionbRemoval of C of C symbol from drawing wherever is required In an automobile transmission, the driver’s comfort of smooth shifting and selection of gears is a major concern for the transmission designer. Apart from smoother shifting and selection of gears while driving, the overall gearshift quality is also important for the transmission designer, which has a direct impact on customer delight. In the following article, an attempt has been made to develop a precise methodology in which critical parameters impacting Gear Shift Quality are identified, categorization of those parameters, data…
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Optimization of Air Intake System and Exhaust System for Better Performance of Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

Tata Motors Ltd.-Sundar D
Vehicle Testing Lab.-Yogesh Vasantrao Magar
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline engines with Multi point fuel injection (MPFI) technology are being developed with naturally aspirated and/or turbocharged engines. Wherein a MPFI and turbo charged combination engines have certain challenges during development stages. One of the important challenge is design of air intake and exhaust system. With MPFI turbocharged engine combination, the under bonnet heat management is crucial task for drivability. The heat management of air intake plays a vital role in drivability part therefore a design layout of air intake path is an important aspect.Drivability can be categorized as low end, mid-range and top end drivability. Turbocharged MPFI engines have a typical phenomenon of ‘Lag in response’ in the low-end region. This ‘Lag in response’ phenomenon at low-end drivability region can be overcome through optimization of air intake system and optimization of exhaust back pressure.This paper presents on the opportunities of improving ‘Lag in response’ phenomenon at lower end engine speed range.
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An Engine Stop Start System with Driver Behavior Learning and Adaption for Improving the User Experience

Tata Motors Ltd.-Satishkumar P
Tata Technologies Ltd.-Gopal Athani, Srinivasa Raju Gavarraju, Punit Jain, Shashank Addala
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Engine Stop/Start System (ESS) promises to reduce greenhouse emissions and improve fuel economy of vehicles. Previous work of the Authors was concentrated on bridging the gap of improvement in fuel economy promised by ESS under standard laboratory conditions and actual driving conditions. Findings from the practical studies lead to a conclusion that ESS is not so popular among the customers, due to the complexities of the system operation and poor integration of the system design with the driver behavior. In addition, due to various functional safety requirements, and traffic conditions, actual benefits of ESS are reduced. A modified control algorithm was proposed and proven for the local driving conditions in India.The ways in which a given driver behaves on the controls of the vehicles like Clutch and Brake Pedals, Gear Shift Lever were not uniform across the demography of study and varied significantly. In addition, Authors also discovered that some drivers also deployed the parking brake during an idle stop. Thus, a concept of autonomous learning algorithm was envisaged, which would learn the driver behavior…
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Development of Accelerated Life Test Schedule for Rig Testing of Live Axles Based on Road Load Data and Its Correlation with Field

Tata Motors Ltd.-Sujit Mohire, Pravin Kathale, Mithun Chaskar, Vishveshvar Tendulkar
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Drive components of live axle undergoes different loading conditions during field usage depending upon terrain conditions, vehicle loading and traffic conditions etc. During vehicle running, drive components of axle experiences variable torque levels, which results in the fatigue damage of the components. Testing of these drive components of axle on test rig for endurance life is an imperative part of axle development, owing to limitations of vehicle testing because of time and cost involved. Similarly, correlating field failures with rig testing is equally critical. In such situation, if a test cycle is derived correlating the field usage, rig testing can be effectively used for accelerated life testing and reliability prediction of these components. An approach is presented in the paper wherein test cycle is derived based on the data collected on vehicle in the field under service road and loading conditions. The data is collected in terms of propeller shaft torque or wheel torque, engine and transmission output speeds, transmission and axle oil temperatures etc. Above data is collected for few hundred kilometers in required…
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