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Secure vehicular communication using blockchain technology

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Vidya Krishnan M, Rajesh Koduri, Sivaprasad Nandyala, Mithun Manalikandy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0722
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cars we drive are rapidly transforming. Connected vehicles in the context of the Advanced Driver Assistance System or Autonomous Vehicles are about to change the way we drive cars. Connected Vehicles are futuristic vehicles that can interact with other vehicles for passing on information such as, mapping and localization, information about road traffic and driving behaviour. However, such vehicles, particularly the autonomous ones, are prone to a variety of attacks including cyber-attacks. These malicious attacks can intrude a vehicle that not only endangers the vehicles safety, but also the life of passengers and the nearby environment. Thus, identifying and eliminating these attacks for providing a secure communication environment is of great need. Also, all the existing methods for vehicular communication rely on a centralized server which itself invite massive cyber-security threats. These threats and challenges can be addressed by using the Blockchain (BC) technology, where each transaction is logged in a decentralized immutable BC ledger. In this work, we show how BC can facilitate communication between connected vehicles to send and receive information while…
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Scalable decentralized solution for secure Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Sreelakshmi S. Vattaparambil, Rajesh Koduri, Sivaprasad Nandyala, Mithun Manalikandy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0724
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is set for a rapid transformation in the next few years in terms of communication. The kind of growth the automotive industry is poised for in fields of connected cars is both fascinating and alarming at the same time. The communication devices equipped to the cars and the data exchanges done between vehicle to a vehicle are prone to a lot of cyber-related attacks. The signals that are sent using Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) between vehicles can be eavesdropped by the attackers and it may be used for various attacks such as the man in the middle attack, DOS attack and Sybil attack. These attacks can be prevented using the Blockchain technology, where each transaction are logged in a decentralized immutable Blockchain ledger. This provides authenticity and integrity to the signals. But the use of Blockchain Platforms such as Ethereum has various drawbacks like scalability which makes it infeasible for connected car system. In this paper, we propose a solution to address various drawbacks of VANET such as privacy issues and, security…
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Human Emotion Based Interior Lighting Control

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Sivaprasad Nandyala, Gayathri K, Sharath D H, Mithun Manalikandy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, research on Human Computer Interaction (HCI) based on emotion recognition using behavioral and physiological signals have attracted immense interest in research circles. Lighting inside the automotive make us feel differently about our driving and how we feel or behave. From the literature, it is observed that ambient lighting makes an impact on the driving experience and it delivers an emotional atmosphere inside the automotive. Driving fatigue can be reduced if the lighting is controlled properly. These days, ambient interior lighting can be considered to be the point of fashion for high end automotive and also impact driver’s mood and comfort. There are different types of automotive based lighting automation systems available but emotion based control is in early or nascent stages of research. Speech controlled light control systems, control the light by the recognition of speech of the user and by using facial expressions lighting can be controlled. Facial/speech signals consist of both outward physical expression and the inborn emotions. These emotional signals thus exhibited vary from situation to situation and are mostly…
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Controlling LED Based Adaptive Front-Lighting System Using Machine Learning

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Sivaprasad Nandyala, Sriharsha Santhapur, Kshitij Kumar, Mithun Manalikandy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Accidents in nights have a major share in all automotive accidents. Even though, the average distance driven in dark is 75% less as compared to the average distance driven during the day, the fatalities in nights due to road accidents are 300% of the day time. Again, the statistical studies from the National Safety Council disclose the fact that 55% of all road accidents in nights occur at the curved roads due to insufficient illumination and poor judgment of curves. The paper proposes a control algorithm with machine learning that controls LED matrix headlamp to provide precise beam pattern shaping and beam intensity (i.e. high and low beam). The system is designed to give the driver improved visibility under varying driving conditions. Adaptive Front Lighting System is an intelligent system, designed in MATLAB\Simulink environment that optimizes the illumination of roads during the night, on the basis of inputs from different sensors in the vehicle.
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A Standardized Process Flow for Creating and Maintaining Component Level Hardware in the Loop Simulation Test Bench

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Jihas Khan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
HILS is a proven and essential part of the embedded product development life cycle which strives to reduce effort, time and cost spent on automotive validation activities. An efficient HILS system allows to create a precise simulation environment for the ECU which is made to believe that it is sitting inside a real vehicle and there by the intended functionalities implemented in the same could be tested even before the vehicle prototypes or other ECUs or sensors and actuators are available. An inefficient and faulty HILS system provides erroneous test results which could lead to wrong inferences. This paper is proposing a standardized process flow aided by specific documentation and design concepts which validates that the test system designed is robust and caters to the actual requirement. The Design stage starts by a requirement gathering phase where the analysis of the device under test is executed in detail. This paper discusses how this is first translated to a high level design of the HIL system. This is followed by a test strategy document design which…
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Scalable Validation Framework to Test the OSEK/VDX Based Network Management Protocol in ECUs

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Jihas Khan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Network Management protocols are implemented in ECUs to provide a start-up of the network, node monitoring and to ensure that they go to a proper sleep mode when they don’t need the network, coordination among ECUs, support of diagnosis, reading and setting of network specific parameters and proper wake up of the network. OSEK/VDX based network management protocol is the most widely used among OEMs and its validation has proved to be of utmost importance these days. This paper is proposing a scalable validation framework using the model based architecture and relevant hardware to test the conformance of ECUs to the specifications of OSEK/VDX NM. OSEK/VDX works mainly via the exchange of network management CAN messages between the ECUs. This solution is capable of simulating NM CAN messages with relevant background logic implemented in Matlab for CAN database parsing, collecting current ECU information, alive message handling, dynamic logical ring building, timing parameters checking, node skipping emulation, ring rebuilding scenario creation, network sleep simulation, network wake up check, quiescent current check, limp home mode emulation and…
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Generic Model Based Architecture for Implementing Client Side Algorithms Used in Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics for Different Hardware Targets

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Jihas Khan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Unified Diagnostic Service and On Board Diagnostics require a client side device with necessary software to implement certain specific algorithms. This paper proposes a highly optimized and generic model based architecture to implement client side algorithms used in Unified Diagnostic Service systems and with On Board Diagnostics which can be reused for any hardware target. The proposed method can implement particular algorithms which include flow control, timing control, database parsing, logging of messages, diagnostic database parsing, security unlock, intuitive HMI layer, DTC display with textual information, frame control, multi network - multi ECU support, software flashing, physical-functional message handling, and interfacing for multiple hardware host devices. Re-usability of this model based product ensures that it can be ported to the diagnostic tool used by a work shop engineer or by a diagnostics validation engineer working at OEM or Tier 1suppliers. This means that this software is hardware independent. Scalability is ensured by designing the model in a modular way, thereby the accommodation of additional logic is made easy. The model also supports automated diagnostics implementation…
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Design of a Robust Method and a System Architecture for Tracking Moving Vehicle under Noisy Radar Measurements

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Innovation in the field of intelligent autonomous systems of the automotive sector has been ever increasing. Accurate tracking of vehicles is an important aspect in the design of applications such as smart route planning or collision avoidance systems. In practical applications, tracking of vehicle using radar technology suffers from serious problem due to noisy measurements. It introduces major limit on the accuracy of the tracking system. This paper discusses a case study scenario where the robustness of vehicle tracking can be improved using Extended Kalman Filtering. Noisy radar measurement is simulated through model based design (MBD) using MATLAB. Analysis and design of Extended Kalman Filter to mitigate the noise is discussed. An efficient system architecture to implement the algorithm in autonomous smart vehicle tracking system is also identified.
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Constraints and Solutions in Creating an Efficient Validation Framework for RADAR based Electronic Control Units

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Jihas Khan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver assistance features like Advanced Emergency Brake Assist, Adaptive Cruise Control, Blind Spot Monitoring, Stop and Go, Pedestrian Detection, Obstacle Detection and Collision Detection are becoming mandatory in many countries. This is because of the promising results received in reducing 75% of fatalities related to road accidents. All these features use RADAR in detecting the range, speed and even direction of multiple targets using complex signal processing algorithm. Testing such ECUs is becoming too difficult considering the fact that the RADAR is integrated in the PCB of ECU. Hence the simulation of RADAR sensor for emulation of various real world scenarios is not a preferred solution for OEMs. Furthermore, Tier ones are not interested in a testing solution where the real RADAR sensor is bypassed. This paper discusses such issues which include the validation of the most modern Electronic Scanning RADARs. These instruments could detect even up to 64 dynamic targets in multiple directions using a single RADAR module. HILS based test solutions without bypassing the RADAR sensor for the real time validation of…
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Challenges and Solutions for Hardware in the Loop Simulation - HILS Validation of Battery Management and Battery Monitoring System Modules

Tata Elxsi, Ltd.-Jihas Khan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
With the advent of hybrid and electric cars battery monitoring systems and battery management systems have become bundled with more and more sophisticated algorithms and specifications. The validation of these systems are a head ache for OEMs and Tier ones considering the massive battery, high voltage and the current involved with the real loads directly or in directly connected to them. This paper is aimed at providing an intuitive explanation of these challenges and solutions which employ HILS for the component level validation of the above units. . Conventional validation for these systems produce test results much later in the embedded product development life cycle which calls for an additional over head of cost, resource, time and effort. A Proposed solution is to find the accuracy of SOC, SOH estimation algorithm in the battery monitoring sensor which usually will be clamped to the real battery itself. This paper uses physical measurement methods to estimate the SOC and SOH and compare it with the value reported by ECU. The HILS test bench makes use of real…
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