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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

TNO Automotive-Frank Willems
DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. Tests were carried out at 1200 and 1425 rpm; for the latter engine speed peak efficiency was attained at considerably lower NOx levels by applying a ramped injection rate. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square…
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CO2 neutral heavy-duty engine concept with RCCI combustion using seaweed-based fuels

TNO Automotive-Xander Seykens, Cemil Bekdemir
ECN Part of TNO-Jaap Van Hal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0808
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper focusses on the application of bioalcohols (ethanol, butanol) derived from seaweed in Heavy Duty (HD) Compression Ignition (CI) combustion engines. Seaweed based fuels don’t claim land and are not in competition with the food chain. Currently, the application of high octane bioalcohols is limited to SI engines. The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion concept allows using these low carbon bioalcohol fuels in CI engines with associated higher than SI engine-like efficiencies. This contributes to reducing tailpipe CO2 emissions as is required by (future) legislation and reducing fuel consumption, i.e. Total-Cost-of-Ownership (TCO). Furthermore, it opens the HD transport market for these low carbon bioalcohol fuels from a novel sustainable biomass source . This paper first discusses the complete CO2 life-cycle of the seaweed based bioalcohol fuels considering both well-to-tank and tank-to-wheel efficiencies and their potential as an energy source for HD transport. Ethanol (E85) and butanol are considered as the most viable fuels derived from seaweed. The potential of these fuels in RCCI mode regarding efficiency and operating range, is evaluated by changing…
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Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

TNO Automotive-Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.This paper presents the validation of a semi-empirical control-oriented diesel engine model for non-standard ambient conditions. Measurements on a Heavy-Duty Diesel engine for long haulage applications are performed using TNO’s Climate Altitude Chamber. Inhere, ambient conditions are varied ranging from -15°C to + 30°C…
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Coordinated Air-Fuel Path Control in a Diesel-E85 RCCI Engine

TNO Automotive-Frank Willems, Frank Kupper, Sudarshan Ramesh
TNO-Armando Indrajuana, Erik Doosje
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combines very high thermal efficiencies with ultra-low engine out NOx and PM emissions. Moreover, it enables the use of a wide range of fuels. As this pre-mixed combustion concept relies on controlled auto-ignition, closed-loop combustion control is essential to guarantee safe and stable operation under varying operating conditions.This work presents a coordinated air-fuel path controller for RCCI operation in a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine. This is an essential step towards real-world application. Up to now, transient RCCI studies focused on individual cylinder control of the fuel path only. A systematic, model-based approach is followed to design a multivariable RCCI controller. Using the Frequency Response Function (FRF) method, linear models are identified for the air path and for the combustion process in the individual cylinders. From timing and blend ratio (BR) sweeps, it is decided to realize the high-level control objectives by controlling CA50, IMEP, BR and λ. Based on the identified models, a static decoupling is designed for the combined air-fuel system. For the decoupled system, a PI air path controller…
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A Model Based Definition of a Reference CO2 Emissions Value for Passenger Cars under Real World Conditions

TNO Automotive-Norbert Ligterink, Willar Vonk, Rob Cuelenaere
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Dimitris Tsokolis, Athanasios Dimaratos, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stylianos Doulgeris
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
With the adoption of the Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP) and the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations for testing and monitoring the vehicle pollutant emissions, as well as CO2 and fuel consumption, the gap between real world and type approval performances is expected to decrease to a large extent. With respect to CO2, however, WLTP is not expected to fully eliminate the reported 40% discrepancy between real world and type approval values. This is mainly attributed to the fact that laboratory tests take place under average controlled conditions that do not fully replicate the environmental and traffic conditions experienced over daily driving across Europe. In addition, any uncertainties of a pre-defined test protocol and the vehicle operation can be optimized to lower the CO2 emissions of the type approval test.Such issues can be minimized in principle with the adoption of a real-world test for fuel consumption. However, repeatability and an accuracy of a few gCO2/km is difficult to achieve due to the actual drag, the road surface effect on driving resistance, the road…
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Towards Model-Based Control of RCCI-CDF Mode-Switching in Dual Fuel Engines

TNO Automotive-Armando Indrajuana, Cemil Bekdemir, Emanuel Feru, Frank Willems
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The operation of a dual fuel combustion engine using combustion mode-switching offers the benefit of higher thermal efficiency compared to single-mode operation. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual fuel engines in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) mode, is a feasible way to further improve thermal efficiency compared to Conventional Dual Fuel (CDF) operation of the same engine. In RCCI combustion, also ultra-low engine-out NOx and soot emissions have been reported. Depending on available hardware, however, stable RCCI combustion is limited to a certain load range and operating conditions. Therefore, mode-switching is a promising way to implement RCCI in practice on short term.In this paper, a model-based development approach for a dual fuel mode-switching controller is presented. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of this controller for a heavy-duty engine running on natural gas and diesel. An existing control-oriented engine model is extended with a new CDF model to simulate both CDF and RCCI operation. This model shows good agreement with experimental data. As a first step towards model-based control…
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Variable Valve Actuation Strategies for Better Efficiency Load Range and Thermal Management in an RCCI Engine

TNO Automotive-Maciej Mikulski, Praveen Ramanujam Balakrishnan, Erik Doosje, Cemil Bekdemir
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition concept for dual-fuel engines has multiple challenges of which some can be overcome using Variable Valve Actuation approaches. For various fuel combinations, the engine research community has shown that running dual-fuel engines in RCCI mode, improves thermal efficiency and results in ultra-low engine-out nitrous oxides and soot. However, stable RCCI combustion is limited to a certain load range, depending on available hardware. At low loads, the combustion efficiency can drop significantly, whereas at high loads, the maximum in-cylinder pressure can easily exceed the engine design limit.In this paper, three VVA measures to increase load range, improve combustion efficiency, and perform thermal management are presented. Simulation results are used to demonstrate the potential of these VVA measures for a heavy-duty engine running on natural gas and diesel. First, TNO’s multi-zonal combustion model is introduced and validated using experimental data from a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine operated in RCCI mode with variable intake timing. This combustion model is used in conjunction with a commercial zero-dimensional engine simulation tool to examine three different VVA…
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Towards Ultra-Low NOx Emissions within GHG Phase 2 Constraints: Main Challenges and Technology Directions

TNO Automotive-Xander Seykens, Frank Kupper, Paul Mentink, Sudarshan Ramesh
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Increasing efforts to minimize global warming has led to regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of automotive applications. The US is frontrunner regarding implementation of GHG related legislation with the introduction of GHG phase 1 and phase 2, ultimately targeting a 40% fuel consumption reduction in 2027 compared to 2010 on vehicle level. More specific, engines are required to reduce CO2 emissions by 6% compared to GHG phase 1 levels. Next to the GHG emission legislation, more stringent legislation is anticipated in the US to further reduce NOx emissions: a further 90% reduction is targeted as soon as 2024 compared to 2010 standard. Meeting these anticipated ultra-low NOx standards within the GHG phase 2 constraints on CO2 poses a great challenge. This paper presents an overview of the main challenges and key aspects regarding meeting ultra-low NOx requirements within the constraints on CO2 and N2O set by GHG phase 2 regulations. The study is based on simulation results from validated control-oriented models of current and future engine and aftertreatment technologies. As reference a Heavy-Duty EURO…
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Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

SAE International Journal of Engines

TNO Automotive-Paul Mentink, Xander Seykens, Daniel Escobar Valdivieso
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0951
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world operation. In such concept, the on-line availability of engine-out NOx emission is crucial. Here, the use of a Virtual NOx sensor can be of great added-value. Virtual sensing enables more direct and robust emission control allowing, for example, engine-out NOx determination during conditions in which the hardware sensor is not available, such as cold start conditions. Furthermore, with use of the virtual sensor, the engine control strategy can be directly based on NOx emission data, resulting in reduced response time and improved transient emission control. This paper presents the development and on-line implementation of a Virtual NOx sensor, using in-cylinder pressure as main input. The development steps from off-line modelling, calibration and validation towards real-time on-line implementation and validation will be presented in great detail. The Virtual NOx sensor is validated on a state-of-the-art EURO-VI…
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Robust, Model-Based Urea Dosing Control for SCR Aftertreatment Systems using a Cross-Sensitive Tailpipe NOx Sensor

TNO Automotive-Gillis Hommen, Frank Kupper, Xander Seykens
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This article describes a NOx sensor based urea dosing control strategy for heavy-duty diesel aftertreatment systems using Selective Catalytic Reduction. The dosing control strategy comprises of a fast-response, model-based ammonia storage control system in combination with a long-timescale tailpipe-feedback module that adjusts the dosing quantity according to current aftertreatment conditions. This results in a control system that is robust to system disturbances such as biased NOx sensors and variations in AdBlue concentrations. The cross-sensitivity of the tailpipe NOx sensor to ammonia is handled by a novel, smart signal filter that can reliably identify the contributions of NOx and NH3 in the tailpipe sensor signal, without requiring an artificial perturbation of the dosing signal.The tailpipe feedback module compares the signal from the cross-sensitive tailpipe NOx sensor to the modeled tailpipe sensor signal to estimate the measured and modeled NOx conversion and NH3 slip, without the need for an NH3 sensor. The difference between these measured and modeled quantities is used to adjust the dosing quantity to the aftertreatment system, thereby maintaining nominal performance of the aftertreatment…
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