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The Development of a Unified Child Restraint to Car Attachment System-A Contribution to the Isofix Discussions

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-T. Turbell
Transport Research Laboratory-R. W. Lowne
  • Technical Paper
  • 946172
Published 1994-05-23 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The development of child restraints from the 1960s has led today to designs that are attached to the car structure using the adult belt system, sometimes with supplementary straps, or by special attachment methods which are specific to a certain vehicle model or limited range of models. The use of the adult belt is intended to make the fit universal. However, adult belts and the location of their anchorages are designed for use by adults. This causes problems in the fit and satisfactory performance of some child restraints in some cars. In addition, the complex and viable routing of the belt on the child restraint results in a high level of misuse. The concept of a simple plug-in system of attachment has been considered by the International Standards Organization Working Group. In the UK, a consortium of car and restraint manufacturers and research organizations has been studying the requirements for such a system taking into account the range of car seat dimensions and child restraint types as a contribution to the ISO work. This paper…
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Experience from Four Years of Activity in the ISO Working Group on Child Restraint Systems

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution-Peter Claesson
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper will summarise the experience of four years activities in the International Standardization Organisation (ISO) working group on child restraint systems in road vehicles. The background for the formation of the working group will be explained. The initial discussion of possible working areas and their priority will be reviewed. It was found that the principal, most urgent areas for investigation of possible future safety standards were compatibility and misuse. Within these areas, the results will be explained in detail, and what possible future Standards or Technical Reports can be foreseen as a result of the work of this ISO working group.
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Behavioural research in an advanced driving simulator - experiences of the VTI system

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-L. Nilsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-14-0021
Published 1993-10-11 by Human Factors and Ergonomics Society in United States
The VTI driving simulator is described briefly, and aspects such as controllability, realism, validity, and motion sickness are discussed. The experience of using a simulator is accounted for. As an example, a study of mobile phone effects on driver behavior is reported, focusing on methodological aspects. The paper ends with an extensive literature list containing behavioral studies performed in the simulator.

Workshop on Assessments of Driving Safety and of Crashworthiness

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-L. Strandberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0070
Published 1993-09-01 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
In this Workshop past safety studies with strategic, controversial or unexpected results will be scrutinized. Between the presentations of scheduled papers, related topics will be discussed upon short oral presentations of selected contributions from delegates.A major workshop objective is to elucidate the great influence on safety ratings from the investigators' experience (both practical and scientific) as well as from risk perspective and preferences. Ratings may concern car models, vehicle type and parameters (mass, geometry, deficiencies, etc.), equipment (ABS brakes, studded tires, airbags, etc.) or education and supervision (safe-driving courses, vehicle inspection, etc.).
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The Art of Measuring Noise from Vehicle Tires

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Ulf Sandberg
Technical University of Gdansk-Jerzy A. Ejsmont
Published 1993-05-01 by SAE International in United States
During the latest decades tirelroad noise has been recognized as one of the most significant parts of road traffic noise. It has therefore become necessary to employ suitable noise reduction measures on tires as well as road surfaces which do not impose safety problems. Since many of these measures rely on appropriate measuring methods, several activities in order to standardize such methods for tirelroad noise have started.The paper begins with a systematic analysis of the rather complicated tirelroad noise problem and suggests ways to solve it. Then a review is presented of the major measuring methods considered for standardization with regard to classification of tires: The coast-by method The trailer method The laboratory drum method The trailer coast-by methodThe advantages and disadvantages as well as which applications are the most suitable for each one are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the extremely important question of test track surface selection. Especially, the surface recently standardized by ISO for vehicle noise tests is compared to a surface more representative of actual road conditions. Other parameters considered…
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The New Trygg Hansa Truck Driving Simulator-An Advanced Tool for Research and Training

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-S. Nordmark
  • Technical Paper
  • 928397
Published 1992-09-14 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper describes a new driving simulator intended for both heavy vehicle combinations and passenger cars. The design is based on the well- known VTI driving simulator and has the same degrees of freedom. Some special techniques are used to ensure that the large mathematical models can be run in real time with moderate computer resources. The areas of use cover both research and training of drivers.

Are Air Bags Compatible With Child Restraint Systems and Roadside Safety Features

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 916142
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
For about 20 years rearward facing child seats have been used in Sweden for children up to the age of 3 years. These seats are usually mounted in the front seat passenger position leaning against the dashboard. The protection performance has been shown to be excellent (90-95% injury reduction) and this concept is now being adopted in other countries. A passenger air bag can obviously be dangerous in combination with this type of child seats and some dynamic tests have been done with different combinations. These tests show that the dummy accelerations will reach very high levels and that some child seats will disintegrate. This paper will present these results and discuss possible countermeasures. The new requirements for roadside safety features that are now being developed in Europe and the USA are based on the assumption that passengers are not using seatbelts. These requirements will encourage the development of systems with a low g-level at the beginning of the collision in order to let the unbelted occupants hit the dashboard with a low impact speed.…

Vehicle Conspicuity

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Kåre Rumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 896090
Published 1989-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Collisions between road users are the most serious and frequent road traffic accidents. When trying to look deeper into the question why a collision really happened a frequent and true answer is that the other road user was not detected until too late. Certainly accidents may happen in spite of detection, e.g. due to misjudgement of speed and/or distance. But early detection is a necessary condition for safe road traffic.For most road users the most dangerous vehicle in road traffic is the automobile (the truck, the bus, the passenger car). Therefore, the most important conspicuity is that of the automobile. It is true that the highest risk is that for the motorcycle. But even if the risk is high the accident frequency and the risk for others are low.Vehicle conspicuity can be obtained at least four ways: contrast (brightness, color); motion (against background or internal); size (angular); and information technology (radar, microwaves, infrared, ultrasound, etc).For several reasons internal motion and angular size are not workable variables. Information technology is probably the solution of the future~but…

Load Transfer From the Striking Vehicle in Side and Pedestrian Impacts

Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Bertil Aldman, Janusz Kajzer
  • Technical Paper
  • 856082
Published 1985-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The level at which forces are transmitted from the striking vehicle in side impacts may influence the response of the struck car in several different ways. A better contact between the front bumper of the striking and the sill area of the struck car has been considered to be desirable in this respect.In side impacts, the most frequent direction of the impact is from 3 and 9 o'clock, while the direction of the forces is usually from 2 and 10 o'clock due to the velocity of the struck car. A European car and the EEVC moving deformable barrier have, therefore, been used in a crabbed mode to study the problem of load transfer at different levels above the ground. Volvo and Saab cars were used as targets in 55 km/h side impact with an APROD-81 side impact dummy placed on the struck side in the front seat. The results indicate that a difference in the level at which the loads were applied could influence the deformations, the kinematics of the struck cars, and the loading…