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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Shell-Roger Cracknell
Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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Determination of Diesel Physical Properties at Injection Pressures and Temperatures via All-Atom Molecular Simulations

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell-Abhinav Verma, Roger Cracknell, David Doyle, Indranil Rudra
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2253
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Fuels are subjected to extreme conditions inside a fuel injector. In modern common rail diesel engines, fuel temperatures can reach 150°C and pressures can exceed 2500 bar inside the rail. Under such conditions the fluid physical properties of the fuel can differ substantially from ambient pressure and temperature and can impact the spray behavior and characteristics. Moreover, experimental determination of the fuel physical properties at these extreme conditions can be very difficult.Previously it has been shown that for pure components, all atom molecular simulations offer a reliable means to calculate the key physical properties (including transport properties, e.g., viscosity) at FIE representative conditions. In this study we extend the approach to calculate these properties of binary mixtures using atomistic molecular simulations. We modelled the diesel fuel using two diesel surrogates: a modern “GTL-like” diesel fuel surrogate, n-hexadecane, and a “conventional” diesel fuel surrogate n-decylbenzene and calculated viscosity and density for the respective pure components and their various binary mixtures.The molecular dynamics simulations provide insights into the mechanisms at an atomic level and can reliably calculate…
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Vapour Space Flammability Considerations for Gasoline Compression Ignition Vehicles Operating on “Dieseline” Blends.

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell-Roger Cracknell
Concawe-Heather Hamje, David Rickeard
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2266
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been identified as a technology which could give both high efficiency and relatively low engine-out emissions. The introduction of any new vehicle technology requires widespread availability of appropriate fuels. It would be ideal therefore if GCI vehicles were able to operate using the standard grade of gasoline that is available at the pump. However, in spite of recent progress, operation at idle and low loads still remains a formidable challenge, given the relatively low autoignition reactivity of conventional gasoline at these conditions. One conceivable solution would be to use both diesel and gasoline, either in separate tanks or blended as a single fuel (“dieseline”). However, with this latter option, a major concern for dieseline would be whether a flammable mixture could exist in the vapour space in the fuel tank. It is expected that in a practical scenario, the ambient temperature would generally exceed the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) temperature of diesel/gasoline blends. A non-flammable vapour could still be assured, however, if the temperature in the fuel tank were above…
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Numerical Investigation of GDI Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Characteristics

Shell-Jens Krueger Venus
Jaguar Land Rover-Li Cao, Adam Weall
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
The large eddy simulation (LES) with Volume of Fluid (VOF) interface tracking method in Ansys-FLUENT has been used to study the effects of nozzle hole geometrical parameters on gasoline direct injection (GDI) fuel injectors, namely the effect of inner hole length/diameter (L/D) ratio and counter-bore diameters on near field spray characteristics. Using iso-octane as a model fuel at the fuel injection pressure of 200 bar, the results showed that the L/D ratio variation of the inner hole has a more significant influence on the spray characteristics than the counter-bore diameter variation. Reducing the L/D ratio effectively increases the mass flow rate, velocity, spray angle and reduces the droplet size and breakup length. The increased spray angle results in wall impingements inside the counter-bore cavity, particularly for L/D=1 which can potentially lead to increased deposit accumulation inside fuel injectors. The influences of the counter-bore diameter become more obvious with decreased L/D ratio. For the lower L/D ratio, the sprays with large included angles are more vulnerable to the air entrained into the counter-bore cavity and the…
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Application of MC Method-Based H2 Fueling

Shell-Nikunj Gupta, Herie Soto
Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.-Joseph Cohen
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
To address challenges related to refueling with compressed hydrogen, a simple, analytical method has been developed that allows a hydrogen station to directly and accurately calculate an end-of-fill temperature in a hydrogen tank and thereby maximize the fill quantity and minimize the refueling time. This is referred to as the MC Fueling Method, where MC represents total heat capacity. The MC Method incorporates a set of thermodynamic parameters for the tank system that are used by the station in a simple analytical equation along with measured values of dispensed hydrogen temperature and pressure at the station. These parameters can be communicated to the hydrogen station either directly from the vehicle or from a database that is accessible by the station. Because the MC Method is based on direct measurements of actual thermodynamic conditions at the station, and quantified thermodynamic behavior of the tank system, highly accurate tank filling results can be achieved.The MC Method can be used as the fueling protocol for an Identification Fill (ID Fill), which uses tank-specific MC parameters, or for a…
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Management of Lubricant Fuel Economy Performance over Time through Fuel Additives

Shell-Scott Rappaport, Steve Nattrass, Sue Smith, Mark Brewer, Ian Buttery, Hongrui Ma
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Government regulations and market demands continue to emphasize conservation of fossil fuels in the transportation industry. As a consequence, any incremental improvement in fuel economy (FE) is of great importance in the automotive sector. For instance, lower viscosity lubricants have been shown to improve FE but the longevity of such improvement is compromised by viscosity increases often observed as a lubricant ages during an oil drain interval (ODI). To address this issue, an option to manage lubricant viscometrics via fuel is proposed. In order to investigate such mitigation of viscosity increase during an ODI, and potentially the delivery of an ODI-averaged FE benefit, a fleet test was conducted with a fuel-borne additive intended to control increases in lubricant viscosity.The fleet test compared a market-representative reference fuel to a fuel containing a viscosity control additive (VCA). Five different European vehicle models were tested over a 15,000 mile ODI using a “quad” fleet testing protocol previously described. The FE evolution of each vehicle was determined by the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) procedure at intervals throughout the…
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API CJ-4: Diesel Oil Category for Both Legacy Engines and Low Emission Engines Using Diesel Particulate Filters

Shell-M. Urbank
Afton-C. Passut
Published 2006-10-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the U.S. EPA's 2007 on-highway emission standards for particulate and NOx, all diesel engines will require diesel particulate fi lters (DPFs) and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and will utilize ultra-low sulfur fuel. As this will be the first time that all on-highway diesel engines will employ DPFs combined with ultra-low-sulfur fuel, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) requested that a new oil category be developed to provide compatibility with DPFs in the exhaust system, as well as engine durability for both new and legacy engines.This paper reviews the development of this new oil category called API CJ-4, which will be introduced in October 2006. This diesel engine oil category is the first in the U.S. which limits the oil's sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur in order to insure adequate service life of the DPF.The API CJ-4 oil category includes 9 fi red engine tests and 6 bench tests. The new multi-cylinder tests in the category include Caterpillar C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, Mack T-12, and Mack T-11, which cover oil consumption,…
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Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particle Emissions from Heavy Duty Engines

Shell-Richard J. Stradling, Peter J. Zemroch
BP Amoco-Diane E. Hall
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
Air quality monitoring of PM10 and associated health studies have focused interest on the size and the number of particles emitted to, and found in, the atmosphere. Automotive sources are one of the important elements in this, and CONCAWE have completed a study of heavy duty diesel particle emissions, complementing their previously reported light duty work. This heavy duty programme, presented here, investigated the nature of particulate emissions from two heavy duty engines (representative of different emissions levels), operating on three marketed fuels, over their respective European legislative heavy duty test cycles.The programme has investigated some of the complexities associated with obtaining credible data (e.g. dilution ratios, system stabilisation time etc.). The number distributions, which were measured over a wide size range (3 to 1000 nm), have been split into two size ranges, representative of nucleation mode and accumulation mode particles. These two ranges have been analysed in terms of the effects of engine technology, fuels and test conditions.Accumulation mode particles were found to be measurable to a satisfactory level of repeatability, and were relatively…
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The Effect of Fuel Sulphur Content on the Exhaust Emissions from a Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Marketed in Europe

Shell-R Stradling
BP Amoco-P J Bennett, J Rogerson
Published 1999-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The effect of fuel sulphur on emissions from a lean-burn G-DI passenger car homologated according to German D3 specifications was investigated over the European drive cycles. In addition some tests over US Federal cycles were conducted. No statistically significant deterioration in tailpipe emissions was detected with the leanburn G-DI technology using a selective reduction type de-NOx catalyst at fuel sulphur levels from 30 to 300 mg/kg. The emission response to fuel sulphur level was essentially flat, and the sulphur effect was less than that seen in the EPEFE fleet. Tests were conducted applying a rigorous test protocol including four repeats with each fuel and a desulphation procedure between fuel changes.Approximately 15-20% improvement in fuel economy over comparable MPI cars was predicted based on the CO2 results from the current programme and German type approval data. Increased particulate mass emissions were observed, compared with typical MPI cars.
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A Review of Recent Literature Investigating the Measurement of Automotive Particulate; The Relationship with Environmental Aerosol, Air Quality and Health Effects

Shell-T. B. D. Morgan
BP Oil-D. E. Hall, D. J. King
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Levels of ambient particulate matter have become the focus of increased attention over recent years as a result of studies suggesting an association between exposure and adverse health effects. Whilst research is continuing in many areas to identify a biological mechanism whereby this association can be explained, as yet there are only hypotheses. Causal relationships between observed health effects (i.e. increased hospital admissions, mortality, respiratory or heart problems) and any specific characteristic of the ambient aerosol have yet to be confirmed.Ambient aerosol has a complex chemistry and a wide range of physical properties, most of which undergo constant modification or transformation within the atmosphere. The particles in this aerosol may have originated either from natural or anthropogenic sources and may be either primary emissions (i.e. directly emitted to the atmosphere as particles) or secondary particles - formed by reaction of gas phase components. The extent of the contribution to the total aerosol from the variety of different sources, of which traffic emissions are one, will vary from locality to locality, seasonally and diurnally and be…
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