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Open Access

Engine Cleanliness in an Industry Standard Mercedes-Benz M111 Bench Engine: Effects of Inlet Valve Deposits on Combustion

Shell Global Solutions UK-Pauline R. Ziman, Adrian P. Groves, Roger F. Cracknell
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH-Fabian Volkmer
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Port fuel injected (PFI) technology remains the most common fuel delivery type present in the marketplace for gasoline spark ignition engines and a legacy vehicle fleet featuring PFI technology will remain in the market for decades to come. This is especially the case in parts of Asia where PFI technology is still prominent, although direct injection (DI) technology adoption is starting to catch up.PFI engines can, when operated with lower quality fuels and lubricants, build up performance impairing deposits on a range of critical engine parts including in the fuel injectors, combustion chamber and on inlet valves. Inlet valve deposits (IVDs) in more severe cases have been associated with drivability issues such as engine stumble and engine hesitation on sudden acceleration. Deposit control additives in gasoline formulations are a well-established route to managing and even reversing fuel system fouling.This study, involving an industry standard, Mercedes-Benz M-111 PFI bench engine heavily augmented with measurement equipment, was able to obtain a deeper understanding of the negative impacts of IVDs on engine performance and efficiency. By using a…
Open Access

A Study of Diesel Fuel Injector Deposit Effects on Power and Fuel Economy Performance

Shell Global Solutions UK-Alastair Smith
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland)GmbH-Christiane Behrendt
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Injector cleanliness is well characterised in the literature [1,2,3,4] as a key factor for maintained engine performance in modern diesel cars. Injector deposits have been shown to reduce injector flow capacity resulting in power loss under full load; however, deposit effects on fuel economy are less well characterised.A study was conducted with the aim of developing an understanding of the impact of diesel injector nozzle deposits on fuel economy. A series of tests were run using a previously published chassis dynamometer test method. The test method was designed to evaluate injector deposit effects on performance under driving conditions more representative of real world driving than the high intensity test cycle of the industry standard, CEC DW10B engine test, [1]. The efficacy of different additive levels in maintaining injector cleanliness and therefore power and fuel economy was compared in a light duty Euro 5 certified vehicle.Full load power loss in low or non-additised fuels was observed (~3%), whereas a keep-clean dose of a deposit control additive (DCA) fully maintained performance. Furthermore, a statistically robust link between…
Open Access

The Application of Telematics to Demonstrate Octane Quality Effects in Real World Driving

Shell Global Solutions UK-Shuhui Yow, Steve Nattrass, Wayne R. Jones
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Enhanced octane is one route to fuels differentiation where associated vehicle performance benefits are generally measured under controlled wide-open throttle tests on a chassis dynamometer. The combined availabilities of relevant ECU data via OBD and telematic loggers present new opportunities to assess such fuel benefits on the road in normal real-world driving environments. A novel methodology is described in this paper which utilised the remote logging of key engine EOBD data from a fleet trial and the results successfully demonstrated significant octane-derived benefits in many vehicles throughout normal mixed-roads driving. The availability and the reliability of telematic loggers mean that the method could be implemented in a scalable way as a complementary approach in addition to conventional laboratory vehicle testing.
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Effect of Octane on the Performance of Two Gasoline Direct Injection Passenger Cars

Shell Global Solutions UK-Richard Stradling, Peter Zemroch
BP International Ltd-John Williams
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The performance aspect of gasoline combustion has traditionally been measured using Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance, while also helping refiners in the production of gasoline. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. It has also been suggested that there could be fuel efficiency benefits (on a tank to wheels basis) for specially adapted engines, for example, operating at higher compression ratio, on very high RON (100+). Other workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both RON and MON to give an indication of octane quality.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline vehicles under full throttle acceleration conditions. Fifteen fuels…
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Open Access

Demonstration of Fuel Economy Benefit of Friction Modifier Additives via Fuel-to-Lubricant Transfer in Euro-5 Gasoline Fleet

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions UK-Sarah M. Remmert, Alison Felix-Moore, Steven R. Nattrass, Ian Buttery, Pauline Ziman, Sue J. Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2611
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Improved fuel economy is a key measure of performance in the automotive industry, driven both by market demand and increasingly stringent government emissions regulations. In this climate, targeting even small benefits to fuel consumption (FC) can have a large impact when considering fleet average CO2 emissions. Lubricant properties over the course of an oil drain interval (ODI) directly influence long-term fuel consumption. Furthermore, viscosity control gasoline additives have been shown to provide FC benefit via fuel-to-lubricant transfer. This study investigated whether consistently fueling with gasoline containing friction modifier (FM) additives could provide a long-term fuel consumption benefit via a lubricant transfer mechanism.A robust fleet trial method was employed to quantify fuel consumption benefits of two friction modifier additive packages relative to a baseline deposit control additive (DCA) package in a 95 RON, E5 fuel. FC was measured for 32 market relevant vehicles over the course of a European ODI. The test was performed with 12,000 mile on-road accumulation in a 60/40 urban/high speed driving route. Changes in FC were measured periodically on a chassis dynamometer…
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Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine

Shell Global Solutions UK-Nigel Tait
RWTH Aachen-Norbert Peters
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1). The engine could be run on such blends with extremely low smoke and low NOX at speeds and loads of up to 4000 rpm and 10 bar IMEP. The smoke at…
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Well-to Wheel Greenhouse Gas Emissions of LNG Used as a Fuel for Long Haul Trucks in a European Scenario

Shell Global Solutions UK-Trevor Stephenson
Shell Global Solutions Deutschland-Max Kofod
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application.The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.If LNG is used in a direct-injection engine having the same efficiency as a diesel engine, the “well-to-wheel” GHG emissions are typically around 19% lower than conventional diesel, or around 17% lower than diesel containing 7% FAME (B7).Different sources of LNG may have higher or lower savings, depending on the efficiency of liquefaction and…
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The Effect of Engine, Axle and Transmission Lubricant, and Operating Conditions on Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Economy. Part 1: Measurements

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-K. Selby, R. Mainwaring
Shell Global Solutions UK-David Andrew Green
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2129
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
It is expected that the world's energy demand will double by 2050, which requires energy-efficient technologies to be readily available. With the increasing number of vehicles on our roads the demand for energy is increasing rapidly, and with this there is an associated increase in CO₂ emissions. Through the careful use of optimized lubricants it is possible to significantly reduce vehicle fuel consumption and hence CO₂.This paper evaluates the effects on fuel economy of high quality, low viscosity heavy-duty diesel engine type lubricants against mainstream type products for all elements of the vehicle driveline. Testing was performed on Shell's driveline test facility for the evaluation of fuel consumption effects due to engine, gearbox and axle oils and the variation with engine operating conditions.To complement the rig-based testing, a field test protocol has been developed to better understand the linkage between operating conditions and fuel economy changes when driveline lubricants are changed. Two standard, delivery-type, 18-ton trucks have been modified with fuel-flow, engine operation and GPS (global positioning system) measurement equipment. Following a fixed on-road test…
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Evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel Performance in Advanced Diesel Common Rail FIE

Shell Global Solutions UK-Paul Stevenson, Richard Stradling, Richard H. Clark
Delphi Diesel Systems-Paul Lacey, Jean Marc Kientz, Sandro Gail, Nebojsa Milovanovic
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
An increasing range of conventional and unconventional feed stocks will be used to produce fuel of varying chemical and physical properties for use in compression ignition engines. Fischer-Tropsh (F-T) technology can be used to produce fuels of consistent quality from a wide range of feed stocks. The present study evaluates the performance of F-T fuel in advanced common rail fuel injection systems. Laboratory scale tests are combined with proprietary engine and electrically driven common rail pump hydraulic rig tests to predict long-term performance. The results obtained indicate that the performance of F-T fuel is at least comparable to conventional hydrocarbon fuels and superior in a number of areas. In particular, the lubricity of F-T fuel was improved by addition of lubricity additives or FAME, with minimal wear under a wide range of operating conditions and temperatures. No deposits or lacquer was produced on fuel injection system components; even under relatively severe operating conditions.
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Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions UK-Richard Clark, Peter J. Zemroch
Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Georgios Fontaras, Maria Kalogirou
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1484
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption.The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters…
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