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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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CFD-Driven Preliminary Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Diffusive Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

Scania CV AB-Anders Jäger
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Nicola Giramondi, Mihai Mihaescu, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2192
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of renewable alcohols as fuels for heavy-duty engines may play a relevant role for the reduction of the carbon footprint of the transport sector. The direct injection of ethanol as main fuel and diesel as pilot fuel in the engine combustion chamber through two separate injectors may allow good combustion controllability over the entire engine operating range by targeting diffusive combustion. Closed-cycle combustion simulations have been carried out using AVL FIRE coupled to AVL TABKIN for the implementation of the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) chemistry reduction technique in order to investigate the influence of the injection system geometry and the injection strategy of pure ethanol and diesel fuel on ignition characteristics and combustion at different operating conditions.
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Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

Scania CV AB-Henrik Hittig, Oscar Forsberg
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Hanna Bernemyr, Botond Csontos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2231
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors. Additionally, the influence of the nozzle geometry was tested by using injectors of various designs. In the experiments, high-load engine operation was used to create the effect of fouling in the presence of…
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Performance Analysis of Volumetric Expanders in Heavy-Duty Truck Waste Heat Recovery

Scania CV AB-Jonas Aspfors
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Sandhya Thantla, Jens Fridh, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2266
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
With increasing demands to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, it is necessary to recover waste heat from modern Heavy Duty (HD) truck engines. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been acknowledged as one of the most effective systems for Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) due to its simplicity, reliability and improved overall efficiency. The expander and working fluid used in ORC WHR greatly impact the overall performance of an integrated engine and WHR system. This paper presents the effects of volumetric expanders on the ORC WHR system of a long haulage HD truck engine at a steady-state engine operating point chosen from a real-time road data. Performance of a long haulage HD truck engine is analyzed, based on the choice of three volumetric expanders for its WHR system, using their actual performance values. The expanders are: an oil-free open-drive scroll, a hermetic scroll and an axial piston expander with working fluids R123, R245fa and ethanol, respectively. Performance of the engine that accommodates the WHR system, with each expander and working fluid combination, is assessed based on…
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Impact of Dynamic Exhaust Valve Modelling

Scania CV AB-Ola Stenlåås
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Ted Holmberg, Andreas Cronhjort
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2346
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A method developed in SAE 2019-01-0058 to correct for deviations from quasi-steady exhaust valve flow is implemented on a single-cylinder GT-Power model and the effects on pumping work and blowdown pulse characteristics are investigated. The valve flow area is always reduced compared to the reference quasi-steady case. It decreases with higher pressure ratios over the valve and increases with higher engines speeds. The reduced flow area increases pumping work with load and engine speed, though primarily with engine speed. The magnitude of the blowdown pulse is reduced and the peak is shifted to a later crank angle.
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Comparison of heat losses at the impingement point and in between two impingement points in a diesel engine using phosphor thermometry

Scania CV AB-Christian Binder, Daniel Norling
Lund University, Division of Combustion Physics-Alexios Matamis, Mattias Richter
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2185
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines reduce engine efficiency significantly and account for a considerable amount of injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the impingement of the flame. The present study compares the heat losses at the point where the flame impinges onto the piston bowl wall and the heat losses between two impingement points. Measurements were performed in a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the combusting diesel spray and at a point in between two impingement points was determined using phosphor thermometry. The dynamic heat fluxes and the heat transfer coefficients which result from the surface temperature measurements are estimated. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to individual surface temperature measurements. Thus each surface temperature measurement is linked to a specific impingement and combustion events. An analysis of the surface temperature in connection with the high speed images reveals the great impact of…
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Characterization of Deposits Collected from Plugged Fuel Filters

Scania CV AB-Oscar Forsberg, Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Hanna Bernemyr, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Fuel filters serve as a safety belt for modern compression ignition engines. To meet the requirements from environmental regulations these engines use the common rail injection system, which is highly susceptible to contamination from the fuel. Furthermore, the public awareness towards global warming is raising the need for renewable fuels such as biodiesel. An increased fuel variety brings a higher requirement for fuel filters as well. To better understand the process of filtration, awareness of the different possible contaminants from the field is needed. This study used several chemical characterization techniques to examine the deposits from plugged fuel filters collected from the field. The vehicle was run with a biodiesel blend available on the market. The characterization techniques included X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) joined with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and lastly thermal gravimetric analyzer combined with FTIR and a GC-MS (TGA/FTIR/GC-MS). In addition the remaining ash from TGA was measured in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Deposits were scraped from the used filter, and prepared for the different…
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Cylinder Pressure Based Method for In-Cycle Pilot Misfire Detection

Scania CV AB-Carlos Jorques Moreno, Ola Stenlaas
Lund University-Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0017
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
For the reduction of emissions and combustion noise in an internal combustion diesel engine, multiple injections are normally used. A pilot injection reduces the ignition delay of the main injection and hence the combustion noise. However, normal variations of the operating conditions, component tolerances, and aging may result in the lack of combustion i.e. pilot misfire. The result is a lower indicated thermal efficiency, higher emissions, and louder combustion noise. Closed-loop combustion control techniques aim to monitor in real-time these variations and act accordingly to counteract their effect. To ensure the in-cycle controllability of the main injection, the misfire diagnosis must be performed before the start of the main injection. This paper focuses on the development and evaluation of in-cycle algorithms for the pilot misfire detection.Based on in-cylinder pressure measurements, different approaches to the design of the detectors are compared. For non-adaptive methods, a constant threshold, direct misfire probability, and posterior misfire probability detectors are investigated. For adaptive methods, an adaptive threshold update is suggested, an adaptation of the predictive stochastic models and a sensor…
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The 6-Inlet Single Stage Axial Turbine Concept for Pulse-Turbocharging: A Numerical Investigation

Scania CV AB-Nicholas Anton, Per Birkestad
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The demand for high-efficiency engines has never been greater as energy consumption and emission reductions are key ingredients for continued competitiveness in today’s transportation industry. A main contributor to recent and future improvement of the internal combustion engine is the gas exchange process. By utilizing the exhaust energy in the turbine stage of an exhaust turbocharger, the pumping work can be improved resulting in significant gains of engine system efficiency. Two main aspects can be identified with regards to the turbine design that are crucial: The level of exhaust pulse separation and turbine efficiency at high pressure ratios. For a pulse-turbocharged engine both aspects need to be considered in order to gain full benefit of the exhaust energy utilization process.In this study, a novel axial turbine stage concept with divided inlets is presented. The turbine stage is part of a prototype turbocharger for a performance-optimized Scania 13 liter heavy-duty diesel engine with focus on exhaust energy utilization. The concept design makes it possible to combine both high efficiency levels and pulse separation.At “on-engine” operation, the…
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Heavy-Duty Engine Intake Manifold Pressure Virtual Sensor

Scania CV AB-Sotirios Tsironas, Ola Stenlaas, Magnus Apell
KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Andreas Cronhjort
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasing demands for more efficient engines and stricter legislations on exhaust emissions require more accurate control of the engine operating parameters. Engine control is based on sensors monitoring the condition of the engine. Numerous sensors, in a complex control context, increase the complexity, the fragility and the cost of the system. An alternative to physical sensors are virtual sensors, observers used to monitor parameters of the engine thus reducing both the fragility and the production cost but with a slight increase of the complexity. In the current paper a virtual intake manifold cylinder port pressure sensor is presented. The virtual sensor is based on a compressible flow model and on the pressure signal of the intake manifold pressure sensor. It uses the linearized pressure coefficient approach to keep vital performance behaviors while still conserving calibration effort and embedded system memory. The virtual sensor approach is evaluated from the perspectives of accuracy and robustness. The design and evaluation of the virtual sensor are based on a heavy-duty diesel engine experiment series. The virtual sensor provides promising…
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