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A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

Roush Industries, Inc.-Steven Carter, Kenneth Buczek, Mayuresh Pathak
Club Car, LLC-Adam Clark
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The golf market has remained flat in North America. Whereas, it has grown worldwide. A trend is seen where the number of young adults and adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car. They have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. There is a shift in consumer expectations. Moreover, the market competition has also increased. This drives the OEMs to deliver refined golf cars with NVH being a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an internal combustion engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach is followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing are performed for benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests are performed to root cause issues. The tests further help to provide input for mitigation methods for application on the golf cars. Structural modifications address structure-borne noise and perceived vibration.…
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Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

Roush Industries, Inc.-David Griffiths, Edward R. Green
DaimlerChrysler Corporation-Kuang-Jen Liu
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
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Design Issues in the Use of Elastomers in Automotive Tuned Mass Dampers

Roush Industries, Inc.-Allan Aubert, Art Howle
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
The concept of using tuned mass dampers and absorbers to address undesirable vibration responses in vehicles is not new. However, there are several design issues that cause the vibration control performance of real life tuned dampers to be significantly less than that predicted by simple 2-DOF theory.In this paper, the authors will review tuned damper design theory. Practical issues regarding the use of real life elastomers as spring elements are reviewed, including temperature sensitivity, material damping and nonlinearity. Various elastomers are compared for their effectiveness and applicability to the typical automotive environment. Rules of thumb for tuned damper design are discussed including locations for placement of dampers in automotive structures, tuning for temperature variations, determining the needed mass, and measurements and simulations that can greatly improve the success and timing for tuned damper design.
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Design and Construction of a Four-Wheel Drive Noise and Vibration Chassis Dynamometer

Roush Industries, Inc.-Jeremy Lipton
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
As vehicle development cycles become more condensed, it is necessary to perform testing as expeditiously as possible. One way to accomplish this is to perform tests previously performed over the road in a controlled laboratory environment. The Noise and Vibration engineering consulting group, a division of Roush Industries, Inc. has recently commissioned a four-wheel drive chassis dynamometer located in a hemi-anechoic test cell in order to provide manufacturers and tier suppliers a faster alternative to over the road noise and vibration vehicle level testing.As a consulting company that supports a wide variety of vehicle development needs, many unique challenges had to be overcome throughout the design and construction process. This paper identifies these challenges and presents a methodology for designing and constructing a facility to meet the broad purpose of supporting the noise and vibration testing requirements of the automotive industry.
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An Interactive Approach to the Design of an Acoustically Balanced Vehicle Sound Package

Roush Industries, Inc.-Richard E. Wentzel, Allan C. Aubert
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Each time a new vehicle is developed, engineers face the challenge to develop the ideal sound insulation package. The goal is to attenuate powertrain, wind and road/tire noise from entering the vehicle while complying with cost, weight and packaging constraints. The design process is greatly facilitated if the engineer has effective tools to rapidly quantify how various sound insulation components contribute to the overall NVH performance of the vehicle.This paper discusses how an interactive vehicle acoustical design tool can be developed that assists the designer in making rapid decisions as to how to balance the performance of the various sound package components. The acoustical design tool is unique for each vehicle, and must take into account design decisions such as type of powertrain, body style, and numerous other factors in order to correctly predict the performance of the total package. Any good modeling tool must also take into account inputs from a reasonable range of operating conditions.A very good model for the acoustical behavior of the vehicle can be developed using data from measurements made…
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Freeze Protection of Onboard Urea Co-Fueling System

Roush Industries, Inc.-David Furedy, Jeremy Keller
Colorado University, Boulder-Laura Freeman, Justin Reilly, Matthew Weber, Andrew Sterling, Mikael Pryor, Karl Hausmann, Melvyn Branch
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The urea co-fueling approach to refilling a urea storage container onboard a vehicle is based on the design of a two-fluid dispensing nozzle. With a single refueling operation the nozzle enables an independent delivery of two fluids, diesel fuel and urea, into two separate containers. The person refueling the vehicle needs no new skills or knowledge. But most importantly, the co-fueling method eliminates a separate and a critical action of keeping up with timely refills of the urea as the condition for emissions compliance for the vehicle.However, freezing of aqueous solution of urea below -11.5°C puts additional demands on the design of the two-fluid nozzle and the vehicle fill pipe receptacle, so that a reliable co-fueling process is assured at these cold weather conditions. The paper describes the methods that prevent formation of ice in the co-fueling fill pipe, which would enable refilling of urea during continuous use of the vehicle at temperatures below urea freezing point.
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Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

Roush Industries, Inc.-Nicholas J. Oosting
General Motors Corp.-Julie Hennessy, David T. Hanner, Dave Fang
Published 2005-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented. Noise and vibration data from both bench testing and engine dynamometer testing will also be presented.
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2005 Ford GT Powertrain - Supercharged Supercar

Roush Industries, Inc.-Robert C. Gardner
Ford Motor Company-Curtis M. Hill, Glenn D. Miller
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
The Ford GT powertrain (see Figure 1) is an integrated system developed to preserve the heritage of the LeMans winning car of the past. A team of co-located engineers set out to establish a system that could achieve this result for today's supercar. Multiple variations of engines, transaxles, cooling systems, component locations and innovations were analyzed to meet the project objectives. This paper covers the results and achievements of that team.
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2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

Roush Industries, Inc.-Michael R. Evans, David M. Pollock
Ford Motor Co.-Curtis M. Hill, Glenn D. Miller
Published 2004-03-08 by SAE International in United States
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing.The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
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Supercharging Ford's 4.6L for Affordable Performance

Roush Industries, Inc.-Michael L. Eble, David Thornton
Ford Motor Company-Brian J. Roback, Matthew R. Holl
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
This program was to provide the Mustang performance customer a powerful, affordable engine, while minimizing the impact on manufacturing at the engine and vehicle assembly plants. Variations of engines that met the manufacturing requirements were evaluated, and only the supercharged, 4-valve per cylinder 4.6L engine satisfied all the criteria. This paper covers the changes required to the engine system and the development efforts to meet program requirements. The final results are compared to previous engines in the vehicle, and to other supercharged engines.
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