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A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. Ice accretion may occur in the core compression system, leading to blockage of the core gas path, blade damage and/or flameout. Numerous engine powerloss events since 1990 have been attributed to this mechanism. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. A necessary component of a complete analytical icing model is a thermodynamic accretion model. Continuity and energy balances are performed using the local flow conditions and the mass fluxes of ice and water that are incident on a surface to predict the accretion growth rate. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for…
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ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Xin Yang
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A comprehensive ice crystal icing model is presented in this paper, the Ice Crystal Icing ComputationaL Environment (ICICLE). It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking). In addition, an efficient particle tracking method has been developed into the code, which employs the representative particle size distribution at each injection location and a deterministic particle sticking method by using an in-situ particle based…
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Experimental Study and Analysis of Ice Crystal Accretion on a Gas Turbine Compressor Stator Vane

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier, Alasdair Reed
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Peter Forsyth, Hassan Saad Ifti
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A significant number of historical engine powerloss events have recently been attributed to ingestion of high altitude ice crystals, prompting regulators to expand engine certification envelopes to incorporate ‘ice crystal icing’ conditions. There has been a resulting effort by OEMs and academia to develop analytical and semi-empirical models for the phenomenon, partly through use of rig testing. The current study presents results and analysis of experiments conducted in the National Research Council’s Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). The experiments used a simplified compressor stator vane test article, designed to produce data to build semi-empirical models and validate an existing ice crystal icing code. Accretion growth rates, extracted from backlit shadowgraphy, are presented as a function of test condition, and the algorithm of a new image processing technique using Canny filtering is discussed. Wet bulb temperature, Mach number, particle size and test article angle of attack were systematically varied. In line with previous experiments, the accretion growth rate was observed to be strongly dependent upon bulk particle melt ratio, with a peak growth rate at approximately…
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Two-Way Flow Coupling in Ice Crystal Icing Simulation

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Jonathan Paul Connolly, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Alex Bucknell, Liam Parker
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerous turbofan power-loss events have occurred in high altitude locations in the presence of ice crystals. It is theorized that ice crystals enter the engine core, partially melt in the compressor and then accrete onto stator blade surfaces. This may lead to engine rollback, or shed induced blade damage, surge and/or flameout. The first generation of ice crystal icing predictive models use a single flow field where there is no accretion to calculate particle trajectories and accretion growth rates. Recent work completed at the University of Oxford has created an algorithm to automatically detect the edge of accretion from experimental video data. Using these accretion profiles, numerical simulations were carried out at discrete points in time using a manual meshing process. That work showed that flow field changes caused by a changing accretion profile had significant effects on the collection efficiency of impinging particles, ultimately affecting the mass of accreted ice and its shape. This paper discusses the development of the ICICLE numerical ice crystal icing code to include a fully automated two-way coupling between…
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Olympus Non-Advocate Review

Rolls-Royce Plc-R. Beckett
BMT Reliability Consultants Ltd.-S. Duffin
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-11-0020
Published 1999-03-23 by Royal Aeronautical Society in United Kingdom
Thirty years ago, this month, March 1969 the first flight of Concorde took place. A unique aircraft, instantly recognized throughout the world, a symbol of Anglo-French Aerospace Technology at its peak. An aircraft that today is still the flagship of BA, carrying the Important and Famous across the Atlantic daily at twice the speed of sound. It is without doubt the most prestigious aircraft in the world.The initial design challenges tackled in the early 60s were daunting, not least for the powerplant and accomplished in the era of slide rules and log tables. The Olympus 593 engine derived from the TSR2 engine is required not only to accelerate the aircraft to MACH 2 but sustain this for 3 hours at altitudes up to 60k ft. As with any aviation project the ability of the engines to accomplish the required duty in a safe and reliable way is fundamental.Concorde has achieved an excellent reliability record with exemplary safety, in the 23 years of daily service operation. This has been accomplished in an environment of ever-increasing expectations…

Simultaneous Engineering in Aero Gas Turbine Design and Manufacture

Rolls-Royce Plc-T. Broughton
  • Technical Paper
  • 924113
Published 1992-01-01 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
This paper presents an analysis of the Engineering process in aero gas turbine design and manufacture. In an attempt to optimize this process to the needs of the business, the philosophies of Simultaneous Engineering are explored and applied to it. The management of people is discussed in this highly integrated environment and the impact of computer aided engineering is examined as an enabling device for Simultaneous Engineering. Examples of the successful implementation of Simultaneous Engineering are given.

Manufacture Technology

Rolls-Royce Plc-A. J. S. Pratt
  • Technical Paper
  • 924137
Published 1992-01-01 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
Design requirements are often constrained by the available manufacturing technology. This paper reviews how current and future aero engine designs are supported by Manufacturing Technology. This includes developments in new materials, processes and inspection, as well as the impact of computer based information systems on the relationship between the designer and the manufacturer.