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A Process for an Efficient Heat Release Prediction at Multiple Engine Speeds and Valve Timings in the Early Stage of Gasoline Engine Development

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Christian Rota, Richard Osborne, Kenan Mustafa
LOGE AB-Andrea Matrisciano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0085
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The increasing need for cleaner and more efficient combustion systems has promoted a paradigm shift in the automotive industry. Virtual hardware and engine calibration screening at the early development stage, has become the most effective way to reduce the time necessary to bring new products to market. Virtual engine development processes need to provide realistic engine combustion rate responses for the entire engine map and for different engine calibrations. Quasi Dimensional (Q-D) combustion models have increasingly been used to predict engine performance at multiple operating conditions. The physics-based Q-D turbulence models necessary to correctly model the engine combustion rate within the Q-D combustion model framework are a computationally efficient means of capturing the effect of port and combustion chamber geometry on performance. A rigorous method of correlating the effect of air motion on combustion parameters such as heat release is required to enable novel geometric architectures to be assessed to deliver future improvements in engine performance.A previously assessed process using a combination of a 0-D combustion Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM), provided by LOGESoft, a 1-D…
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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Joshua Dalby, Fabien Fiquet, Andrew Ward
Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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Predictive CFD Auto-Tuning Approach for In-Cylinder Simulations of Two Small-Bore LDD Engines

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Kenan Mustafa, Andy Ward
University of Brighton-Konstantina Vogiatzaki, Robert Morgan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0033
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Tightening emission regulations and accelerating production cycles force engine developers to shift their attention towards virtual engineering tools. When simulating in-cylinder processes in commercial LDD DI engine development, the trade-off between run time and accuracy is typically tipped towards the former. High-fidelity simulation approaches which require little tuning would be desirable but require excessive computing resources. For this reason, industry still favors low-fidelity simulation approaches and bridges remaining uncertainties with prototyping and testing. The problem with low-fidelity simulations is that simplifications in the form of sub models introduce multi variable tuning parameter dependencies which, if not understood, impair the predictive nature of CFD simulations.In previous work, the authors have successfully developed a boundary condition dependent input parameter table. This parameter table showed outstanding results for lab-scale experiments for over 40 varying operating conditions. The objective in this paper is first to identify the necessary considerations to adjust for the inherent differences between lab-scale and real engine conditions and then implement this parameter table into industry relevant conditions. With this approach the appropriate simulation setup for…
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High Power Density, 48V Electrified Drivetrain Technology for Future Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-William Drury, Chintanbhai Patel, Andrew Atkins, Anthony Wearing
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-26-0034
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
A duplex 3-phase (6-phase with 2 star-points) eMachine and associated inverter, including the development of the control algorithm, for a P2 hybrid vehicle was developed. The requirements, relating to power and duty cycle, flow down from the vehicle to the eMachine: these are shown and design issues relating to the use of a 48V system presented. The focus on low cost, compact solutions runs through the work. The inverter is rated at 25 kW to drive an interior permanent magnet eMachine, supplied by a 48V dc-link. The focus of the work presented in this paper is the inverter controller development and powertrain sizing. The test results of the eMachine with the inverter are presented to show the drive system operating the 6-phase current controller and inverter.
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Experiences Tuning an Augmented Power Unit Sound System for Both Interior and Exterior of an Electric Car

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Matthew Maunder
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A system for realistic augmentation of power unit sound has been applied to an electric car. Augmented interior sound has been shown to be a powerful enabler for the acceptance and appeal of electric cars. In some territories augmented exterior sound is a legal requirement, to provide a safe urban environment particularly for vision-impaired pedestrians.An accelerometer located on the electric motor casing provides a live-streamed signal from the power unit that conveys authentic and genuine information. The sound’s level and frequency content are modulated by acceleration demand and vehicle speed signals respectively, thus tapping into the existing ‘language’ of car sound. Inside the car, this enriches the dynamic driving experience during spirited driving, while retaining acoustic comfort under cruising. The sound’s harmonic content can be enhanced and tuned to provide a variety of sonic timbres, reinforcing a wide range of brand and product images, although flexibility is limited to an extent due to the authentic sound source. Outside the car, a balance can be found between informing pedestrians effectively and avoiding environmental noise pollution.A practical…
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Exhaust Emissions Control: 60 Years of Innovation and Development

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Matthew Keenan
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The earliest public domain reference regarding full engine testing of an automotive catalyst was from January 1959, written by GM and presented at the annual SAE meeting in Detroit. This current publication will review the first public domain paper referencing different aftertreatment technologies (such as TWC, LNT, DPF and SCR, but not limited to these technologies) and compare the technologies to the current state of the art in aftertreatment technology.This historical review using a range of databases, will show how exhaust aftertreatment technologies have significantly enhanced emissions control over the last 60 years for both gasoline and diesel applications. A timeline will be given showing when various technologies were first presented into the public domain. This will indicate how long it has taken certain emissions control technologies to enter the market.
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System for Augmenting the In-Cabin Sound of Electric Vehicles

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Matthew Maunder, Benjamin Munday
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Excitement, image and emotion are key attributes for cars, particularly those with higher power ratings. Engine sound has traditionally acted as the car’s voice, conveying these attributes to the driver and passengers along with the brand image. Engine sound also underpins the dynamic driving experience by giving instant feedback about how a car is operating, enhancing the connection between driver and vehicle. For decades, the automotive industry has engineered engine sound to achieve these benefits, thereby defining the ‘language’ of car sound.Electric vehicles deliver strong and responsive performance but naturally lack the acoustic feedback that internal combustion engines provide. While this gives advantages in terms of comfort and environmental noise, the benefits of engine sound are lost. Carefully controlled acoustic feedback inside the car’s cabin brings tangible and valuable benefits both for the dynamic driving experience and to convey the brand image. A key emerging challenge is to provide acoustic augmentation whilst maintaining a degree of integrity and authenticity.A new system fulfils the need for in-cabin sound in electric vehicles. It powerfully enriches the dynamic…
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The Potential of Thermoelectric Generator in Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Applications

Dezong Zhao
Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Cedric Rouaud
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on an investigation into the potential for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to improve the fuel economy of a mild hybrid vehicle. A simulation model of a parallel hybrid vehicle equipped with a TEG in the exhaust system is presented. This model is made up by three sub-models: a parallel hybrid vehicle model, an exhaust model and a TEG model. The model is based on a quasi-static approach, which runs a fast and simple estimation of the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The model is validated against both experimental and published data. Using this model, the annual fuel saving, CO2 reduction and net present value (NPV) of the TEG’s life time fuel saving are all investigated. The model is also used as a flexible tool for analysis of the sensitivity of vehicle fuel consumption to the TEG design parameters. The analysis results give an effective basis for optimization of the TEG design.
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Driveline Vibration Analysis for Successful Clutch Spring Pack Design for a 4 Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Thomas Paul Deighan, Timothy Whitehead
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The design of the spring pack providing torsional compliance within motorcycle clutch assemblies is often determined from the mean torque and a factor to allow for torque fluctuations. While this approach may work for many applications the selected spring rates can sometimes cause a driveline resonance within the operating speed range with major implications for NVH. For motorcycle engines it is also often impossible to select a spring rate low enough to shift the resonance below the operating speed range due to the requirement to transmit torques under steady load and transient events within tight spring package constraints.This paper demonstrates the approach of using a linear frequency domain analysis to model the entire driveline, from the crankshaft to the bike mass, to provide a relatively quick assessment of the driveline torsional vibration and assess potential design solutions. The paper also demonstrates a novel method for the calculation of an optimum variable rate clutch spring design to minimise the resonant vibration for 4 cylinder engines where isolation is not possible.This method was applied to the development…
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Overview of the SARTRE Platooning Project: Technology Leadership Brief

Ricardo UK, Ltd.-Eric Chan
Published 2012-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles are increasingly being sold with partially automated systems in order to improve fuel consumption, safety or driver convenience. The SARTRE project is an EU FP7 project which brings together seven companies to explore how road trains, or platoons, can continue the trend of automation to bring benefits to fuel consumption, safety, congestion and driver convenience. In order to enable the introduction of such systems in the near future, the project is assuming that no changes to the road infrastructure will be required, and that any systems added to the vehicles are either already in production or are close to being in production. This paper provides an overview of the project and presents some of the preliminary results.
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