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Real-World Emissions Measurements of a Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle without and with a Gasoline Particulate Filter

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-Jon Andersson
AECC-Joachim Demuynck, Cecile Favre, Dirk Bosteels
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The market share of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) vehicles has been increasing, promoted by its positive contribution to the overall fleet fuel economy improvement. It has however been reported that this type of engine is emitting more ultrafine particles than the Euro 6c Particle Number (PN) limit of 6·1011 particles/km that will be introduced in Europe as of September 2017 in parallel with the Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure.The emissions performance of a Euro 6b GDI passenger car was measured, first in the OEM build without a Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF) and then as a demonstrator with a coated GPF in the underfloor position. Regulated emissions were measured on the European regulatory test cycles NEDC and WLTC and in real-world conditions with Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) according to the published European RDE procedure (Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427 and 2016/646). Finally, tests were conducted on the chassis dyno to explore the impact of going towards the RDE boundary conditions (driving dynamics and ambient temperature as defined in the RDE legislation).PN results showed that the vehicle…
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The Use of Advanced Optimization Techniques to Develop the Supervisor Control of a Mild Hybrid Diesel Vehicle

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-Neville Jackson, Peter Fussey, Richard Gordon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-08-0135
Published 2003-05-21 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The authors have been investigating energy management using algorithms that continuously optimize energy flows of vehicle powertrain. These are functions of performance demands, battery state of charge, emissions requirements and system efficiency. The gains in efficiency become possible from flexibility in engine operating point through the operation of electric drive and intelligent use of ancillary systems.The authors have applied this approach during development of the ""i-MoGen?? mild hybrid diesel vehicle. In this paper, they extend this approach to Diesel Particulate Filter regeneration strategies and further to include integration with telematics systems.

Intelligent Vehicle System Thermal Management in a Mild Hybrid-Diesel Vehicle

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-P. Revéreault
Valeo Engine Cooling-B. Gessier, M. Chanfreau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-04-0046
Published 2003-05-18 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
The worldwide convergence towards stricter fuel consumption and emission regulations is driving automotive engineers to offer new and optimized solutions to the challenges faced in all fields of vehicle design. In 2000, Ricardo and Valeo embarked on the building of a vehicle demonstrator, designated i-MoGen (Intelligent Motor Generator), to demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to the use of emerging automotive technologies in terms of: fuel economy, emissions, and vehicle driveability. The vehicle's main features are, amongst others, a downsized high output HSDI engine, a 42V, 6kW Flywheel-Mounted Electrical Device (FMED) - acting as a starter motor, an alternator and a generator - a supervisory control system, a 42V HVAC system including PTC heater and an intelligent cooling system.The latter was defined in order to meet the thermal needs of the vehicle systems through an optimized architecture and a suitable level of flexibility. Vehicle systems thermal needs were identified during a testbed thermal survey where the influence of the vehicle's main thermal parameters on emission and fuel consumption were assessed. The findings from the…
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Reducing Crank Rumble Using Transfer Path Analysis to Assess Engine Modifications

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-Mike Croker, Matt Maunder
Honda R&D Co. Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imai, Noboru Sannodo, Takashi Kondo
Published 2003-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Crank rumble is an amplitude-modulation of engine noise perceived inside a car. It is common under full load acceleration but not under part load acceleration, so could cause concern.Honda and Ricardo carried out a program of work to research methods to reduce the perceived (subjective) level of crank rumble inside a vehicle under part load acceleration.Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) is a method of predicting vehicle interior noise by separating sources (the engine) and transfer paths (the vehicle body). TPA was applied in the time domain to allow subjective assessment of the different contributors to the interior sound quality. Subjective assessment was performed by a panel of listeners, to avoid bias caused by individual opinions. This approach identified key contributors to the perceived crank rumble, and allowed targets to be set.Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) was used to study a range of modifications to the engine. The effects of the modifications were assessed subjectively, using TPA, relative to the vehicle level subjective target. Technology to allow this kind of assessment has not been available previously. Results were…
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Investigation of a Two-Valve Electronically Controlled Unit Injector on a Euro Iv Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Design of Experiment Methods

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-B. J. Rogers, C. H. Such, C. H. Best
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-04-0087
Published 2002-11-26 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
This paper reports the results of a test program on a heavy-duty, single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a two-valve electronically controlled unit injector (EUI).The test data were modeled using a stochastic process modelling technique (SPM). Optimized settings were identified for two scenarios: lowest fuel consumption, and lowest particulate emissions.The ability of the two-valve EUI to increase nozzle opening pressure greatly improved particulate emissions at Euro IV NOx levels and beyond. Pilot and post injections were shown to have some benefit below Euro IV NOx levels.

Development of Hsdi Combustion Systems Utilizing Cfd Analysis Techniques

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-D. J. Rawlins, T. A. Downes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2003-04-0093
Published 2002-11-26 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
The ability to achieve performance and emissions targets with first engine builds offers a significant reduction in time and cost for combustion system development. Application of CFD techniques to the development of high specific rating HSDI engines allows rapid assessment of fuel/air mixing and definition of combustion system parameters including combustion bowl shape and FIE specification. Combustion modelling extends the capabilities of these techniques to include emissions prediction within the system definition stage. The paper presents the process employed by Ricardo to rapidly carrying out and assess the results of CFD calculations with comparison to multi-cylinder performance and emissions results. Results are shown for two case studies covering nozzle selection and injection timing optimization, although a number of successful applications of these techniques to develop ""right first time'' combustion systems have been carried out on a number of client programs.

A parametric inlet port design tool for multi-valve diesel engines

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-M. C. Bates
University of Brighton-M. R. Heikal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-04-0082
Published 2002-09-24 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
A fully parametric, multi-valve inlet port design tool has been developed using statistical design-of-experiments (DoE) techniques. A modular approach was adopted so that a complete port layout could be constructed using flexible, interchangeable, generic models. Additional cylinder head features and external packaging requirements were considered throughout, as were production requirements. Reliable experimental methods were used to quantify the influence of key design parameters. A predictive, knowledge-based model was developed from the DoE results and was used to predict optimum configurations for a range of scenarios. The models were successfully validated by comparing predicted results with new test data.An overview of the tasks undertaken in developing the model is presented, including a discussion of the major findings and conclusions. An investigation using the knowledge-based model is also presented to demonstrate the practical use of the system.

Applications of advance modelling methods in engine development

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-J. Seabrook, B. Rogers, G. Farrow, J. Patterson
Ricardo GmbH-S. Edwards
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-04-0077
Published 2002-09-24 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
Design of Experiments (DoE) is now widely applied in engine development. However, there are some important engineering activities where it is difficult to apply classical DoE techniques comprising 2- & 3-level fractional designs and second- order polynomial models. This has led some companies to develop processes based on the application of more sophisticated techniques, including various types of space-filling designs, neural network and stochastic process models, and different global optimization algorithms.Advanced modelling techniques are essential for problems where classical DoE is inadequate because of the presence of higher-order variable effects and interactions. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented and three examples of engine development activities involving advanced models are described.The examples, covering cylinder block design, evaluation of new fuel injection equipment and common-rail diesel engine calibration, demonstrate that advanced models can be incorporated successfully in the engine development process and deliver improvements in quality through accurate emulation of nonlinear variable effects.

Application of CFD analysis techniques to development of high-performance HSDI combustion systems

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-D. J. Rawlins, T. A. Downes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2002-30-0033
Published 2002-09-10 by CMT in Spain
Reducing development times for high specific rating HSDI combustion systems has resulted in the use of CFD techniques to assess fuel/air mixing and develop combustion system parameters including combustion bowl shape and FIE specification. The paper presents a process developed by Ricardo to rapidly carry out and assess the results of CFD calculations with comparison to multi- cylinder performance and emissions results. Unsteady CFD calculations incorporating moving geometry and fuel spray are carried out from IVC to 40° ATDC. The results from the calculation are assessed using a zonal division of the chamber over the part cycle modeled to investigate fuel/air mixing and transport within the chamber. This analysis allows direct comparison of combustion systems to assess implications of changing piston bowl and FIE parameters. Results are shown for a Ricardo internal research program, although a number of successful applications of this process to develop ""right first time"" combustion systems have been carried out on a number of client program. This ability to achieve performance and emissions targets with first engine builds offers a significant…
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A Knowledge-Based Model for Multi-Valve Diesel Engine Inlet Port Design

Ricardo Consulting Engineers Ltd.-M. C. Bates
University of Brighton-M. R. Heikal
Published 2002-05-06 by SAE International in United States
In an investigation to gain a deeper understanding of the relationships between port geometry and performance characteristics, a parametric inlet port design tool has been developed using statistical design-of-experiments (DoE) techniques. A strong emphasis has been placed on achieving realistic, production-feasible port geometry that may be used directly during concept design projects. A modular approach has been developed using flexible, interchangeable, generic inlet port models. Constraints are used to represent additional features in the cylinder head and external packaging requirements. A thorough assessment of performance was made possible by using rapid-prototype models and reliable experimental methods. The in-cylinder flows were successfully validated by comparing predicted results with new test data. By analysing the DoE data and generating polynomial models, a knowledge-based system was developed and used to predict optimum design configurations for a range of common diesel engine applications.An overview of the tasks undertaken in developing and testing the knowledge-based parametric model is presented, including a discussion of key results and conclusions. A case study is also presented to demonstrate the use of the system…
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