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Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Repsol YPF-Maria Dolores Cardenas Almena
Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Georgios Fontaras, Maria Kalogirou
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1484
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption.The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters…
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Impact of Fuel Properties on Advanced Combustion Performance in a Diesel Bench Engine and Demonstrator Vehicle

Repsol YPF-Javier Ariztegui
Chevron USA Inc.-William Cannella
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Six diesel, kerosene, gasoline-like, and naphtha fuels have been tested in a single cylinder diesel engine and a demonstrator vehicle, both equipped with similar engine technology and optimized for advanced combustion performance. This study was completed in order to investigate the potential to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and noise levels through changes in both engine hardware and fuel properties. The fuels investigated in this study were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions and performance. The optimized bench engine used in this study included engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under advanced combustion conditions, at least under some speed and load conditions. The engine enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, and closed loop combustion control to ensure a constant combustion phasing with different fuels. With these modifications, it was found that the engine could run on a wide range of…
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

Repsol YPF-Javier Ariztegui
CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points.Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

Repsol YPF-Javier Ariztegui
CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages.The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
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Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions from Modern Gasoline Vehicles

Repsol YPF-Guillermo Wolff
BP Global Fuels Technology-Roberto Bazzani
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
The influence of gasoline quality on exhaust emissions has been evaluated using four modern European gasoline cars with advanced features designed to improve fuel economy and CO2 emissions, including stoichiometric direct injection, lean direct injection and MPI with variable valve actuation.Fuel effects studied included sulphur content, evaluated over a range from 4 to 148 mg/kg, and other gasoline properties, including aromatics content, olefins content, volatility and final boiling point (FBP).All four cars achieved very low emissions levels, with some clear differences between the vehicle technologies. Even at these low emissions levels, all four cars showed very little short-term sensitivity to gasoline sulphur content. The measured effects of the other gasoline properties were small and often conflicting, with differing directional responses for different vehicles and emissions.
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