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Real World Accident Analysis of Driver Car-to-Car Intersection Near-Side Impacts: Focus on Impact Location, Impact Angle and Lateral Delta-V

RNTBCI-Sangolla Narahari, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
NTCNA USA-John Combest
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In total, 865 intersection car-to-car crashes (NASS-CDS CY 2004-2014) are analyzed in detail to determine the injury level outcome based on different crash factors, such as delta-V, age, airbag deployment, number of events, impact locations (F,Y,P,Z,D,B-regions based on CDC codes), amount of compartment intrusion and impact angle. A multivariate logistic regression test was performed to predict the probability of MAIS3+ serious injuries using lateral delta-V, location of maximum deformation from B-PLR, age (0: <60/1: ≥60 years), number of events (0: single/ 1: multiple), intrusion (0: <16cm/ 1: ≥16cm), side airbag deployment (yes/no) and direction of impact (0: 9/ 1: 10 o’clock). It is found that direction of impact is one of the significant (p<0.05) parameters and 10 o’clock angle impact has more influence than 9 o’clock perpendicular lateral impact. Frequency of AIS3+ injuries was high in Y-region impact cases. A sensitivity analysis of serious injuries is performed with respect to lateral delta-V based on logistic regression equation. The probability of serious injury increases more than 2 times when the angle of impact changes from 9 to…
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Vehicle’s Front End Profile Influence on Pedestrian Sensing System Using In-House Developed PDI-2 and Child FE Models

RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Pratapnaidu Vallabhaneni
Nissan Motor Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Munenori Shinada, Kazuto Sato
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Many active safety systems are being developed with the intent of protecting pedestrians namely; pedestrian airbags, active hood, active emergency braking (AEB), etc. Effectiveness of such protection system relies on the efficiency of the sensing systems. The pop-uphood system was developed to help reduce pedestrian head injuries. A pop-up system is expected to make full deployment of the hood before the pedestrian’s head could hit the hood. The system should have the capability to detect most road users ranging from a six year old (6YO) child to a large male. To test the sensing system, an impactor model (PDI-2) was developed. Sensor response varies for vehicles with different front end profile dimensions. To study numerically the sensor response characteristics with respect to different front end parameters, (a) PDI-2 FE model was developed and validated, (b) FE model of sensor was developed and validated, (c) Sensor FE model was incorporated in the vehicle and it was simulated against the PDI-2 FE. The results were validated with physical experiments, (d) Vehicles with different front end profile models…
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Effect of Vehicle's Front End Profile on Pedestrian's Lower Extremity Injury Pattern in Real World and Verification by Large Male FE Human Model

RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Munenori Shinada
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) clearly shows that the extent and the degree of pedestrian's lower extremity injury depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, bumper to knee ratio, bumper lead angle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of the pedestrian at the time of impact. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small-shorter, medium-height and large-taller pedestrian with respect to the “pedestrian to BLE height-ratio” in order to quantify the degree of influence of lower leg injuries in each group. Large adult male finite element model (95th percentile male: 190 cm and 103 kg) was developed by morphing the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) 50th percentile male. Lower extremity of developed large male was fine meshed to predict the fractures accurately. A car model was systematically morphed to create different designs having various front end profile dimensions. Large male model with…
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Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Tumble Motion on an Optical Single Cylinder Engine

RNTBCI-Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
RENAULT SAS-Laurent Delahaye
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper is focused on the experimental and numerical investigation of tumble motion on a single cylinder optical engine on three important parameters like engine load conditions, engine speed and level of tumble. Experiments are conducted in an optical engine and the velocity fields are measured with the aid of advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement technique. For simulation, multiple cases were considered to develop the numerical process for transient in-cylinder aerodynamics to capture the tumble motion and turbulence level in a Spark Ignited (SI) engine. The simulation results, velocity fields of each case were directly compared with the corresponding test results for different crank positions of the engine. On comparison, a good agreement between the measurement and the simulation is obtained for different configurations.
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Estimation of Pelvis Injuries and Head Impact Time using Different Pedestrian Human FE Models

RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Satheesh Narayanan
Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A logistic regression analysis of accident cases in the NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrian pelvis injuries tend to be complex and depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, and the gender and age of the pedestrian. Adult female models (50th %ile female AF50: 161 cm and 61 kg; 5th %ile female AF05: 154 cm and 50 kg) were developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50 and substituting the pelvis of the GHBMC AM50 model. The fine-meshed pelvis model thus obtained is capable of predicting pelvis fractures. Simulations conducted with these models indicate that the characteristics of pelvis injury patterns in male and female pedestrians are influenced by the hip/BLE height ratio and to some extent by the pelvis bone shape. A previously developed six-year-old (6YO) child pedestrian model and the newly developed models were used to estimate the head impact time (HIT) for a typical…
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Estimation of Body Mass Index Effect on Lower Extremity Injuries for Lateral Collision With-out Airbag

RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Satheesh Narayanan
Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries. Occurrence of pelvis injury was found to be influenced by BMI and was validated with logistic regression analysis. Apart from BMI, gender…
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Numerical Spray Modeling for Ultra Low Cost (ULC) Gasoline Engine

RNTBCI-Balamurugan Rathinam, Upendra Naithani
RENAULT SAS-Laurent Delahaye, Frederic Ravet, Frederic Justet
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of this study is to determine the appropriate boundary conditions for the distribution of droplet sizes, speed of the fuel settling at the nozzle of the injector and droplet penetration by numerical simulation using STARCD for a 3-holes injector of ULC-GE. In this study, the Eulerian- Lagrangian approach has been used to model the multiphase domain. A new strategy has been adapted to model droplet initial conditions using the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is determined by measurement of the Sauter Mean Diameter D₃₂ and the De Brouckere Mean Diameter D₄₃ by the MALVERN method. Further, these droplets undergo the phenomenon of atomization by secondary break-up method and evaporation in the Eulerian domain. The numerical model has been used to evaluate the effects of different initial condition of droplets by changing the discharge coefficient of the nozzle, and the initial droplet size distribution at the nozzle tip. The results of this study has been compared and analyzed for penetration length, droplet size distribution (at a distance of 75 mm from the tip of the…
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