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Virtual Chassis Dyno for Diesel Engine Tuning and Calibration

RENAULT SAS-Damien Maroteaux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0076
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Since WLTP introduction in Europe, Exhaust Emission standards are based also on real driving conditions. The tuning and calibration work for Engine-out Emissions and Exhaust After-treatment Systems must therefore include all driving conditions in real life use of the vehicle. This includes temperature conditions, altitude, vehicle load and driving style. Consequently, the workload, cost and duration for the engine and after treatment system calibration activities, based on physical tests as today, are no more compatible with realistic development targets. The purpose of the methodology described in this paper is to replace chassis dyno vehicle tests by Hardware in the Loop, using the Engine Electronic Control Unit as physical part. The vehicle, driver, engine, gearbox are all modeled by 0D/1D simulation running in real time. The methodology used to build the simulation models is described. A Design of Experiment Approach based mainly on steady state engine testing is used to build the engine-out emission model. A very extensive work has been done to validate the method, by comparing results from the model with vehicle chassis dyno…
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NVH Technologies and Challenges on Electric Powertrain

RENAULT SAS-Shanjin Wang, Jean-Louis Jouvray, Thomas Kalos
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
In this article, NVH performance of fully electric vehicles and some key technologies for NVH improvement are presented. A focus is made on a global NVH simulation methodology able to take into account the electromagnetic excitation sources and all the powertrain structure. Examples of simulation results are shown which allow us not only to predict the NVH performance, but also to understand better the fundamental NVH behavior of an electric motor. In an electric motor, the most important NVH phenomenon is the whistling noise, which is caused by the electromagnetic forces and amplified by the powertrain structure. With the current NVH simulation technology, e-motor whistling noise levels can be accurately simulated up to 4500 Hz.The improvement of e-motor whistling noise can be achieved both by reduction of the electromagnetic forces at the source and by optimization of powertrain structure. As far as the powertrain structure is concerned, there are two modes which have predominant effects on the e-motor whistling noise: the torsional mode (<1000 Hz) and the breathing mode (5000-6000 Hz) of the stator-housing assembly.…
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Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Mechanisms Leading to the Accumulation of Particulate Matter in Lubricant Oil

SAE International Journal of Engines

RENAULT SAS-Patrick Gastaldi
IFP Energies nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Olivier Laget, Louis-Marie Malbec, Julian Kashdan, Nicolas Dronniou
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2182
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
The accumulation of particulate matter in lubricant oil can become an important issue in Diesel engines where large amounts of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) are used at medium to high load operating conditions. Indeed, the transport and subsequent accumulation of particulate matter in the engine oil can negatively impact the oil lubricant properties which is critical to ensure mechanical durability and limit the vehicle Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by reducing the servicing intervals. The objective of this investigation was to gain an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for the accumulation of particulate matter in the lubricating oil, and ultimately provide design guidelines to help limit this phenomenon.The present study presents the development and validation of experimental and numerical tools used to investigate this phenomenon. Several advanced diagnostic techniques were developed and applied on an optically-accessible single cylinder Diesel engine to detect the presence of particulates and quantify their concentration in two particular zones: (1) in the upper part of the cylinder liner where particulate matter is believed to be absorbed…
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Vibration Diagnosis on an Electric Motor: Use of Fiber Optic Sensors to Detect Rotor Eccentricity

RENAULT SAS-Jean-Louis Jouvray, Shanjin Wang
Vibratec-Sylvestre Lecuru, Pascal Bouvet
Published 2016-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The recent use of electric motors for vehicle propulsion has stimulated the development of numerical methodologies to predict their noise and vibration behavior. These simulations generally use models based on an ideal electric motor.But sometimes acceleration and noise measurements on electric motors show unexpected harmonics that can generate acoustic issues. These harmonics are mainly due to the deviation of the manufactured parts from the nominal dimensions of the ideal machine.The rotor eccentricities are one of these deviations with an impact on acoustics of electric motors. Thus, the measurement of the rotor eccentricity becomes relevant to understand the phenomenon, quantify the deviation and then to use this data as an input in the numerical models.An innovative measurement method of rotor eccentricities using fiber optic displacement sensors is proposed. These sensors have the characteristics to get round the difficulties of such a measurement: small size, adaptive shape and insensitivity to magnetic and electric perturbation.The measurement of rotor eccentricities is performed on an automotive electric motor in operating conditions in a test bench. The associated preparation work and…
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Global NVH Optimisation Methodologies for Modern Automotive Powertrains

RENAULT SAS-Shanjin Wang
Published 2016-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Currently, new technologies in automotive industry are mainly driven by CO2 regulation and fuel economy. For most of the OEMs, the priority is to optimize internal combustion engines, make light-weighting and develop hybrid vehicles or fully electric vehicles. In this context, it is difficult and expensive trying to reach absolute silence in the cars. A good NVH strategy for non-specialist OEMs will be to keep the noise to an acceptable level and make it as homogenous as possible.This article presents several NVH guidelines for the powertrain in order to achieve homogenous noise in the cars. Firstly, master the level of powertrain vibration and maintain it at a suitable level. Secondly, eliminate abnormal noises which are unpleasant and disturbing, such as transient Diesel clatter noise. Thirdly, reduce the levels of emerging noises from powertrain components, such as turbo charger whistling so that they can be masked by background noise. For each guideline, examples of concrete NVH problems are described and optimization methodologies are presented.
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A Noise Source Identification Method as an Analysis Support Technique to Improve NVH Performances of 3D Structures"

RENAULT SAS-Sandra Forget, Michel Schaeffer
Laboratoire Vibrations Acoustique Lyon-Nicolas Totaro, Jean-Louis Guyader
Published 2016-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The constant evolution in the automotive sector to achieve more eco-friendly vehicles has induced the development of more efficient systems with new components and innovative materials. To evaluate the impact of these technologies or to improve them in terms of NVH performances, acoustic engineers rely on experimental tests and numerical computations. In this context, the use of experimental noise sources identification and characterization methods can provide interesting approaches. However, classical methods usually used in industry like the Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) or the Beamforming techniques are quickly limited, in particular in terms of precision in localization, for such analysis support. The presented method, named M-iPTF for Mixed inverse Patch Transfer Functions, is more suitable as it is able to localize and quantify all acoustic source fields directly on the real geometry of a complex structure. As a result, it offers a more accurate noise sources identification, the possibility of ranking sources by the computation of the radiated power by parts, and a more efficient coupling between experiments and simulations to upgrade a model or to…
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Comparative Analysis of Particle Emission with Two Different Injectors in a CAI 2-Stroke Gasoline Engine

RENAULT SAS-Gilles Coma, Frederic Justet
CMT Motores Termicos Universidad-Vicente Bermudez, Raul Payri, J. Javier Lopez, Daniel Campos
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays the main part of investigations in controlled auto-ignition (CAI) engines are centered on performance or some engine processes simulation, leaving aside particle number (PN) emission. The present work is focused on this last topic: PN emission analysis using two different injectors in a 2-stroke CAI engine, and a global comparison of PN emission of this engine with its homonymous 4-stroke engines at two operating conditions. The study was performed in a single-cylinder gasoline engine with 0.3 l displacement, equipped with an air-assisted direct-injection (DI) fuel injection system. Concerning the injectors evaluated, significant differences in PN emission have been found. When the I160X injector (narrow spray angle) was used, PN emissions were reduced. The spray cone angle during the injection event appears to be a key factor for PN emission reduction. In order to further explore the origin of the PN emitted, the possible oil leakage from the piston oil injector to the combustion chamber was also investigated, confirming that PN is formed during the combustion process itself instead of nucleation-particles caused by the oil.…
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Spray Modelling for GDI Application: Two Different Approach

RENAULT SAS-Vincent Dugue
Renault-Benoit Douailler, Francois Vaxelaire
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This state of art investigation report explains the limitations of Rosin-Rammler approach in comparison with breakup approach. The injection phenomenon of a commercial injector is simulated at various injection pressures, with Heptane (C7H16) in a spray bomb. It is observed that Breakup approach is better suitable in terms of correlation for spray modelling than the Rosin-Rammler approach when the injection pressures are 10 and 20 MPa, the SMD correlation shows also a good correlation at these pressures. At 4 MPa, correlation is a bit poorer, which is coherent as break-up models are best suited to high injection pressures configurations. Also, in each approach the primary dependent parameters are fine-tuned and their effects are discussed.
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Development of a Fuel Economy and CO2 Simulation Platform for Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Application to Renault EOLAB Prototype

RENAULT SAS-Damien Maroteaux, Damien Le Guen, Eric Chauvelier
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The worldwide trends for future CO2 regulation standards will push car manufacturers for more and more development of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Many different configurations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles exist, including parallel hybrid, series hybrid, plug-in hybrids, Battery Electric Vehicles with Range Extender, etc. The choice of the optimal architecture depends on many different parameters, and is a key issue to be solved at the beginning of vehicle development.In order to help decision making in the early phase of projects, simulation tools are essential. A specific simulation platform for simulation of fuel economy and CO2 emissions for hybrid electric vehicles has been developed by Renault. This platform called GREEN is dedicated to the selection of vehicle and powertrain architecture, to the pre-design of powertrain components, and to the determination of Fuel Economy and CO2 targets in the early phase of projects, and to monitoring of Fuel Economy and CO2 during vehicle development.
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Model Predictive Control as a Solution for Standardized Controller Synthesis and Reduced Development Time Application Example to Diesel Particulate Filter Temperature Control

RENAULT SAS-Karim Bencherif, Dirk von Wissel
Honeywell Automotive Software-Lukas Lansky, Dejan Kihas
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the past few years, innovative engine layouts have enabled significant reductions in both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, exponential growth of powertrain control strategies complexity has inevitably accompanied these achievements. As a result, control and calibration development time and effort have become an ever-growing concern in powertrain design. An illustrative example of this complexity is Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF), which requires periodic regeneration to eliminate the accumulated soot. The main challenge for a DPF is to enhance the efficiency of these regeneration events, which depend largely on the quality of the regeneration temperature control.In this paper, we describe the DPF regeneration process, especially the main constraints and identification tests. We then give a simulation based comparison of two model based control solutions for the DPF thermal control during regeneration. Finally, we compare Renault's currently applied industrial gain scheduling controller with a prototype Model Predictive Control (MPC) designed by a software toolset called OnRAMP Design Suite, marketed by Honeywell. Specific attention is drawn to the comparison of the development times and effort.
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