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A New Miniaturized Sensor for Ultra-Fast On-Board Soot Concentration Measurements

SAE International Journal of Engines

Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis C. Samaras
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1008
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this article we present a design of a new miniaturized sensor with the capacity to measure exhaust particle concentrations on board vehicles and engines. The sensor is characterized by ultra-fast response time, high sensitivity, and a wide dynamic range. In addition, the physical dimensions of the sensor enable its placement along the exhaust line. The concentration response and temporal performance of a prototype sensor are discussed and characterized with aerosol laboratory test measurements. The sensor performance was also tested with actual engine exhaust in both chassis and engine dynamometer measurements. These measurements demonstrate that the sensor has the potential to meet and even exceed any requirements around the world in terms of on-board diagnostic (OBD) sensitivity and frequency of monitoring. Further to potential OBD applications, this has the capacity to be used as an engine and combustion diagnostics sensor, for example to detect misfiring, cylinder combustion variability, exhaust gas recirculation flowrate, etc.
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Use of a PPS Sensor in Evaluating the Impact of Fuel Efficiency Improvement Technologies on the Particle Emissions of a Euro 5 Diesel Car

Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The effect of “Start & Stop” and “Gear Shift Indicator” - two widespread fuel saving technologies - on fuel consumption and particle emissions of a Euro 5 passenger car is evaluated in this paper. The vehicle was subjected to a series of different driving cycles, including the current (NEDC) and future (WLTC) cycles implemented in the European type approval procedure at cold and hot start condition and particle number was measured with an AVL Particle Counter. In addition, we have utilized two Pegasor Particle Sensor units positioned in different locations along the sampling line to assess the impact of the sampling location on the particle characteristics measured during highly transient events.The results showed that the particle number emission levels over the WLTC were comparable to the NEDC ones, whereas NOx emissions were more than twofold higher. Both fuel saving technologies can lead to reduced fuel consumption and, subsequently CO2 emissions, in the order of 5%. However, their impact on particle emissions was not straightforward, as the impact of the DPF loading was found much more…
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Applicability of the Pegasor Particle Sensor to Measure Particle Number, Mass and PM Emissions

Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Zissis Samaras
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) has been earlier presented by Ntziachristos et al. (SAE Paper 2011-01-0626) as a novel small and robust instrument that can be directly installed in the exhaust line to measure exhaust particles without any dilution. The instrument is based on the electrical detection of aerosol. It is increasingly being used to measure exhaust particles from engines and vehicles with different exhaust configurations. In this study, a number of tests have been conducted using two sensors in parallel, one directly installed in the tailpipe and one installed in the CVS, side by side to the PM sampling filter. Aim of the study was to make recommendations on the proper use of the sensor and to check how the sensor signal compares to particulate mass, soot concentration, and particle number. A first finding is that external heating has to be provided to the sensor to avoid condensation. Second, very good linearity of the sensor signal is established for all three particle concentrations examined. The only exception was PM at very low concentrations, where…
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Application of the Pegasor Particle Sensor for the Measurement of Mass and Particle Number Emissions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Leonidas Ntziachristos, Stavros Amanatidis, Zissis Samaras
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1561
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) is a small and lightweight sensor that can be used directly in raw exhaust to provide the mass and number concentration of exhaust aerosol. Its operation principle is based on the electrical charging of exhaust aerosol and determination of particle concentration by measuring the charge accumulated on the particles. In this paper we have applied the PPS in a variety of vehicle exhaust configurations to evaluate its performance characteristics. First, the output signal of the instrument was calibrated with diesel exhaust to deliver either the mass or the number concentration of exhaust aerosol. Linear response with the soot mass concentration measured by a Photo Acoustic Soot Sensor and number concentration measured by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor was established. Based on this calibration, the instrument was then used to measure particle concentrations at levels produced by a gasoline direct injection vehicle and diesel exhaust filtered by particle filters of variable efficiency. Hence, the complete range of concentrations and particle characteristics typically encountered in automotive exhaust has been examined. The results…
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Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application

Pegasor Oy-Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen
Aristotle Univ. Thessaloniki-Leonidas Ntziachristos, Pavlos Fragkiadoulakis, Zissis Samaras
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Efforts to develop a sensor for on-board diagnostics (OBD) of diesel vehicles are intensive as diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have become widespread around the world. This study presents a novel sensor that has been successfully tested for OBD diagnosis of damaged DPFs. The sensor is based on the "escaping current" technique. Based on this, a sample of exhaust gas is charged by a corona-ionized flow and is pumped by an ejector dilutor built in the sensor's construction. While the majority of ions return to the grounded sensor's body, a small quantity is lost with the charged particles exiting the sensor. This "escaping current" is a measurement of the particle concentration in the exhaust gas. Such a sensor has been developed and tested in real-exhaust of a diesel car and a diesel engine. The sensor provides high resolution (1 Hz, 0.3 s response time) and high sensitivity superseding OBD requirements. The sensor was used on an engine to monitor the efficiency of damaged DPFs. The signal was found to perform similar to the smokemeter, a widespread…
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