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Efficient Surrogate-based NVH Optimization of a Full Vehicle Using FRF Based Substructuring

Oakland University-Dimitrios Papadimitriou
Beta CAE Systems USA Inc.-Inseok Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0629
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The computer simulation with the Finite Element (FE) code for the structural dynamics becomes more attractive in the industry since it enables quickly evaluating the dynamic performances of the mechanical products like automobile in development with improved accuracy owing to modern technological advancements. However, it normally takes a prohibitive amount of computation time when design optimization is performed with conducting a dynamic analysis using a large-scale FE model many times. Exploiting Dynamic Structuring (DS) leads to alleviating the computational complexity since DS necessities iterative reanalysis of only the substructure(s) to be optimally designed. In this research, FRF Based Substructuring (FBS) is implemented to realize the benefits of DS for fast single- and multi-objective evolutionary design optimization. Also, Differential Evolution (DE) is first combined with two sorting approaches of NSGA-II and Infeasibility Driven Evolutionary Algorithm (IDEA) for effective constrained single- and multi-objective evolutionary optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm (NSGA-II/DE-IDEA) is verified using several test functions for constrained single- and multi-objective optimization. To circumvent the need for frequent time-consuming simulation runs, Kriging surrogate models are…
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Driver Visual Focus of Attention Estimation in Autonomous Vehicles

Oakland University-Alaaldin Hijaz, Wing-Yue Louie, Matthew Bellafaire, Osamah Rawashdeh
Dura Automotive Systems-Iyad Mansour
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1037
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract-An existing challenge in current state-of-the-art autonomous vehicles is the process of safely transferring control from autonomous driving mode to manual mode because the driver may be distracted with secondary tasks. Such distractions may impair a driver’s situational awareness of the driving environment which will lead to fatal outcomes during a handover. Current state-of-the-art vehicles notify a user of an imminent handover via auditory, visual, and physical alerts but are unable to improve a driver’s situational awareness before a handover is executed. The overall goal of our research team is to address the challenge of providing a driver with relevant information to regain situational awareness of the driving task. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to estimating a driver’s visual focus of attention using a 2D RGB camera as input to a Multi-Input Convolutional Neural Network with shared weights. The system was validated in a realistic driving scenario. The developed approach is a first step towards estimating a driver’s situational awareness from their observable indicators which will in the future be utilized to…
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A Decision Based Mobility Model for Semi and Fully Autonomous Vehicles

Oakland University-Vijitashwa Pandey, Line Deschenes
FCA US LLC-Christopher Slon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0747
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the emergence of intelligent ground vehicles, an objective evaluation of vehicle mobility has become an even more challenging task. Vehicle mobility refers to the ability of a ground vehicle to traverse from one point to another, preferably in an optimal way. Numerous techniques exist for evaluating the mobility of vehicles on paved roads, both quantitatively and qualitatively, however, capabilities to evaluate their off-road performance remains limited. Whereas a vehicle’s off-road mobility may be significantly enhanced with intelligence, it also introduces many new variables into the decision making process that must be considered. In this paper, we present a decision analytic framework to accomplish this task. In our approach, a vehicle’s mobility is modeled using an operator’s preferences over multiple mobility attributes of concern. We also provide a method to analyze various operating scenarios including the ability to mitigate uncertainty in the vehicles inputs. An example of this is the collection of soil properties data using techniques such as remote sensing. Operators of these vehicles are interested in finding the value of collecting such information.…
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Digital Image Correlation Based Real-Time fatigue feedback System Study

Oakland University-Boyang Zhang, Wan Xu, Rong Wang, Wen Ma, Lianxiang Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0539
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue testing is a specialized form of mechanical testing that is performed by applying cyclic loading to a coupon or structure. Two common forms of fatigue testing are load controlled high cycle and strain controlled low cycle fatigue. Some strain measurement device, such as extensometer, strain gage, that are often used as a feedback sensor on strain controlled fatigue test. However, in applications where strain controlled fatigue testing could face some extreme conditions as well as high temperature and unusual sizing which requires the strain measurement to be nondestructive and full field. While digital image correlation (DIC), an advanced optical measurement technique, has a decent solution on challenges of fatigue testing measurement. The problem is how to turn DIC from a measurement system to a feedback controller unit. Due to the developments in camera and computation techniques, the sequential process can now be performed as a parallel process. That means while the images are streamed from the camera to the computer the correlation and reconstruction can be performed at the same time. In this way…
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Experimental and Analytical Study of Drawbead Restraining Force for Sheet Metal Drawing Processes

Oakland University-Natalia Reinberg, Ashutosh Mokashi, Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Srecko Zdravkovic, Yurdaer Demiralp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0753
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, implementation of aluminum alloys, advanced high strength steels and ultra high strength steels is quickly increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials often have more limited formability compared to broadly used mild steels. Design of the sheet metal drawing process requires accurate information about the restraining forces distribution usually accomplished by a set of drawbeads positioned along the perimeter of the die cavity. This study is targeting bringing together the results of analytical models, results of finite element analysis and experimental data in attempt to understand the most critical factors influencing the restraining force. The experimental study of the restraining force was performed using drawbead simulator tool installed into Instron tensile testing machine. Based upon the experimental results, it was observed that the restraining force of the given drawbead configuration is dependent upon the depth of bead penetration, friction between the drawbead surfaces and sheet metal as well as the clearance between the upper and lower die. This clearance is often…
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Computation of Safety Architecture for Electric Power Steering System and Compliance with ISO 26262

Oakland University-Saif Salih, Richard Olawoyin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0649
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays and with the advancement of the automotive industry, functional safety has become one of the most significant challenges for autonomous and connected vehicles. The automotive industry is transforming from conventional driving technology where the driver or the human being is a part of the control loop to fully autonomous development and self-driving mode. The SAE levels of autonomy define level 4 by (These automated driving features will not require you to take over driving). Thus, more and more safety-related electronically controlled units ECUs are deployed in the control module of the vehicle. As a result, more complexity of system architecture, software, and hardware are interacting and interfacing which increases the risk of both systematic and random hardware failures. In order to reduce these risks and avoid any potential failure or loss of control, ISO 26262 was introduced and developed to guide the automotive original equipment manufacturer OEMs and suppliers to ensure an adequate and acceptable level of safety procedures are implemented. This study focuses on the EPS systems and their ASIL assignement. It was…
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Tracking Panel Movement during Stamping Process using Advanced Optical Technology

Oakland University-Bicheng Guo, Xiaowan Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Rong Wang, Lianxiang Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0541
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The metal panel is comprehensively applied in the automotive industry. A significant issue for the metal panel is the deflection when did the movement in the press line of the stamping process. Unpredictable deflection could result in the cut off of press line. In order to control the deflection in a safe zone, Finite element tools are used to simulate the panel transform process. However, the simulation needs experimental validation where conventional displacement measurement techniques could not satisfy the requirement of vast filed displacement and accuracy point tracking. In this study, multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been developed to track a panel movement in the press line of the stamping process. There are some advantages for applying the DIC system, which is non-contact, full-field, high accuracy, and direct measurement techniques that provide the evaluation displacement of the metal panel and press line. Nevertheless, the traditional stereo DIC system (with two cameras) has a limited field of view, and the multi-camera DIC system expands the field of view and enables the measurement of panel…
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A Multi-Resonant Speed Piezoelectric Beam Device for Harvesting Energy from Vehicle Wheels

Oakland University-Christopher Cooley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1236
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This work analyzes a cantilevered piezoelectric beam device for harvesting energy from the simultaneous rotation and translational vibration of vehicle wheels. The device attaches to the wheel rim so that it displaces tangentially during operation. A lumped-parameter analytical model for the coupled electromechanical system is derived. The device has one natural frequency that is speed-dependent because of centripetal acceleration affecting the total stiffness of the device. Even though the device has one natural frequency, it experiences three resonances as the rotation speed varies. One resonance occurs when the rotation speed coincides with the speed-dependent natural frequency of the device. The other two resonances are associated with excitations from the vibration of the vehicle wheel. The device’s parameters are chosen so that these three resonances occur when the wheel travels near 30 mph, 55 mph, and 70 mph. There are two excitation frequencies that give these resonant speeds, and both choices differ from the conventional selection of the device’s natural frequency to match the excitation frequency. Instead, the device’s natural frequency must be either above or…
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Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic, Sergey Golovashchenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
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Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples with different heat treatment designs was compared under equivalent hardness. The phase transformation in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures of 399°C (750°F). The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Delamination and smearing were the main wear mechanisms on the gray cast iron samples.