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Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian Kaul, John Storey, Amelia Elliott, Derek Siddel
Argonne National Laboratory-Munidhar Biruduganti, Douglas Longman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0770
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
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Heterogeneous Machine Learning on High Performance Computing for End to End Driving of Autonomous Vehicles

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Robert Patton, Shang Gao, Spencer Paulissen, Nicholas Haas, Brian Jewell
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Xiangyu Zhang, Peter Graf
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0739
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Current artificial intelligence techniques for end to end driving of autonomous vehicles typically rely on a single form of learning or training processes along with a corresponding dataset or simulation environment. Relatively speaking, success has been shown for a variety of learning modalities in which it can be shown that the machine can successfully “drive” a vehicle. However, the realm of real-world driving extends significantly beyond the realm of limited test environments for machine training. This creates an enormous gap in capability between these two realms. With their superior neural network structures and learning capabilities, humans can be easily trained within a short period of time to proceed from limited test environments to real world driving. For machines though, this gap is guarded by at least two challenges: 1) machine learning techniques remain brittle and unable to generalize to a wide range of scenarios, and 2) effective training data that enhances generalization and generates the desired driving behavior. Further, each challenge can be computationally intensive on its own thereby exasperating the gap. Moreover, is has…
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Analysis of Polar Organic Compounds Condensed on Engine Particulate Matter Formed during Advanced Compression Ignition Combustion

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Sam Lewis, John Storey, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran, Melanie Moses-DeBusk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0395
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) combustion has been the subject of many recent studies due to the high thermal efficiencies that can be achieved in internal combustion engines. ACI can also be used in multi-mode combustion engines, which combine spark ignition (SI) operation at high loads with ACI operation at low loads. ACI can limit the emissions of both soot carbon and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from engines due to lower peak temperatures of combustion, but hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) tend to increase. While all ACI combustion strategies are lean, fuel-air stratification levels span a range from completely homogeneous mixtures to highly stratified mixtures. The presence of fuel aromatic compounds and the lean, low temperature combustion environment provide the opportunity for the formation of carboxylic acids and nitro-aromatic compounds. These polar species tend to be non-volatile and condense on exhaust particles. To better understand these polar species, a capillary electrophoresis /electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI MS) method has been developed to identify nitrophenols and carboxylic acids on exhaust PM extracted from sample filters. Results…
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Impact of multi-mode range and location on fuel economy on a light-duty spark-ignition based powertrain using vehicle system simulations

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Scott Curran, Robert Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1018
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) modes have been shown to offer higher brake thermal efficiency than conventional spark ignition combustion with gasoline range fuels. The goal of a full-time ACI in which an ACI mode can be operated in over the entire speed and load map in a conventional passenger vehicle have been limited to date. The benefits of running ACI modes in a portion of the engine operating map have been shown in a number of studies to have potential benefits on improving fuel economy and reducing emissions. An engine that runs in two different combustion modes is known as a multi-mode strategy. Different multi-mode strategies have been proposed and demonstrated in laboratory and in demo vehicle settings. Multi-mode combustion strategies for vehicle applications offer the ability to maintain functionality expected for the real-world and certification driving cycles but offer part-time higher-efficiency/ lower emissions operation during a sufficient portion of the expected drive/duty cycle to offer significant fuel economy benefits as well as potential emissions controls benefits. There are challenges as well in both combustion…
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Dyno-in-the-Loop: An Innovative Hardware-in-the-Loop Development and Testing Platform for Emerging Mobility Technologies

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Zhiming Gao, Tim LaClair
University of California Riverside-Guoyuan Wu, Dylan Brown, Zhouqiao Zhao, Peng Hao, Michael Todd, Kanok Boriboonsomsin, Matthew Barth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1057
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today’s transportation is quickly transforming with the nascent advent of connectivity, automation, shared-mobility, and electrification. These technologies will not only affect our safety and mobility, but also our energy consumption, and environment. As a result, it is of unprecedented importance to understand the overall system impacts due to the introduction of these emerging technologies and concepts. Existing modeling tools are not able to effectively capture the implications of these technologies, not to mention accurately and reliably evaluating their effectiveness with a reasonable scope. To address these gaps, a dynamometer-in-the-loop (DiL) development and testing approach is proposed which integrates test vehicle(s), chassis dynamometer, and high fidelity traffic simulation tools, in order to achieve a balance between the model accuracy and scalability of environmental analysis for the next generation of transportation systems. With this DiL platform, a connected eco-operation system for the plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) has been developed and tested, which can optimize the vehicle dynamics (and potentially powertrain control via smart energy management) to reduce the operational energy consumption as well as tailpipe emissions…
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Achieving diesel-like efficiency on a high Stroke-to-Bore ratio DISI engine under stoichiometric operation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Vicente Boronat, Derek Splitter, Flavio Dal Forno Chuahy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0293
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This work developed and demonstrates pathways to achieve diesel-like, high-efficiency engine operation from spark ignition (SI) combustion at stoichiometric operation with 3-way catalyst compatibility. A high stroke-to-bore (S/B) engine design (1.5:1) with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high compression ratio were used to improve engine efficiency by up to 30% compared with a production turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine. To achieve the efficiency goals, engine experiments were coupled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to guide the experiments to extend the stability and operable limits of high-dilution, high-efficiency SI combustion. The effects of EGR and late intake valve closing are investigated in this work on their effect on Pressure-Temperature history and their effect on efficiency improvement and knock. Direct injection fueling with 91 RON E10 gasoline, 99 RON E0 gasoline, and propane (Autogas) were evaluated with geometric compression ratios ranging from 13.3:1 to 16.8:1. Engine efficiency results have achieved 47% gross thermal efficiency, and 45% net thermal efficiency at stoichiometric engine operation, at up to 17 bar IMEP at 2000 r/min.
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Oxymethylene Ethers and Blends with Diesel Fuel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Oxymethylene ethers (OMEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of OMEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of OMEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for OME, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The general trend…
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Deep Learning-based Queue-aware Eco-Approach and Departure system for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus at signalized intersections: a simulation study

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Zhiming Gao, Tim LaClair
University of California-Fei Ye, Peng Hao, Guoyuan Wu, Danial Esaid, Kanok Boriboonsomsin, Matthew Barth
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0584
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Eco-Approach and Departure (EAD) has been considered as a promising eco-driving strategy for vehicles traveling in an urban environment, where signal phase and timing (SPaT) and geometric intersection description (GID) information are well utilized to guide the vehicles passing through the intersection in a most energy efficient manner. Previous studies by the authors formulated the optimal trajectory planning problem as finding the shortest path on a graph model where the nodes define the reachable states of the host vehicle (e.g., speed, location) at each time step, the links govern the state reachability from previous time step, and the link costs represent the energy consumption rate due to state transition. This method is effective in energy saving, but its computation efficiency can be enhanced by machine learning techniques. In this paper, we propose an innovative Deep Learning-based Queue-aware Eco-Approach and Departure (DLQ-EAD) System for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Bus (PHEB), to provide an online optimal vehicle trajectory considering both the downstream traffic conditions (i.e. traffic lights, queues) and vehicle powertrain efficiency. Based on the optimal solutions…
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Residual stress analysis for additive manufactured large automobile parts by using neutron and simulation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Ke An, Yan Chen
Honda R & D Americas Inc-Alan Seid
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1071
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Metal additive manufacturing has high potential to produce automobile parts, due to its shape flexibility and unique material properties. On the other hand, residual stress which is generated by rapid solidification causes deformation, cracks and failure under building process. To avoid these problems, understanding of internal residual stress distribution is necessary. However, from the view point of measureable area, conventional residual stress measurement methods such as strain gages and X-ray diffractometers, is limited to only the surface layer of the parts. Therefore, neutron which has a high penetration capability was chosen as a probe to measure internal residual stress in this research. By using time of flight neutron diffraction facility VULCAN at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, residual stress for mono-cylinder head, which were made of aluminum alloy, was measured non-distractively. From the result of precise measurement, interior stress distribution was visualized. According to the result, bottom area where was just above a base plate showed higher stress gradient than top where was the farthest side from a base plate. This trend came from restriction of…
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Design and Development of a High-Efficiency Single Cylinder Natural Gas-Fueled Jet Ignition Engine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Josh Pihl, Melanie Moses-Debusk
Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), United St-David Tew
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0565
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The current energy climate has created a push toward reducing consumption of fossil fuels and lowering emissions output in power generation applications. Combined with the desire for a more distributed energy grid, there is currently a need for small displacement, high efficiency engines for use in stationary power generation. An enabling technology for achieving high efficiencies with spark ignited engines for such applications is the use of jet ignition which enables ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6) combustion via air dilution.This paper provides a comprehensive review of the development of a 390cc, high efficiency single cylinder natural gas-fueled jet ignition engine operating ultra-lean. The engine was developed as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (DOE ARPA-E) GENSETS program. Design choices for minimizing friction are highlighted as well as test results showing further friction reduction through downspeeding. Extensive hardware optimization of the combustion system has been performed and results are presented for air-flow path optimization and the jet igniter. The efficiency benefits related to enleanment and downspeeding are analyzed using an efficiency loss breakdown…
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