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Nondestructive Measurement of Residual Strain in Connecting Rods Using Neutrons

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Bunn R. Jeffery, Christopher M. Fancher
Honda R&D Co., Ltd., Japan-Tomohiro Ikeda, Ryuta Motani, Hideki Matsuda, Tatsuya Okayama
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0018
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the strength of materials is effective in reducing weight and boosting structural part performance, but there are cases where the residual strain generated during the process of manufacturing of high-strength materials results in a decline of durability. It is therefore important to understand how the residual strain in a manufactured component changes due to processing conditions. In the case of a connecting rod, because the strain load on the connecting rod rib sections is high, it is necessary to clearly understand the distribution of strain in the ribs. However, because residual strain is generally measured by using X-ray diffractometers or strain gauges, measurements are limited to the surface layer of the parts. Neutron beams, however, have a higher penetration depth than X-rays, allowing for strain measurement in the bulk material. The research discussed within this article consists of nondestructive residual strain measurements in the interior of connecting rods using the Second Generation Neutron Residual Stress Mapping Facility (NRSF2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), measuring the Fe (211) diffraction peak position of the ferrite…
Open Access

Elastomer Swell Behavior in 1-Propanol, Diisobutylene, Cyclopentanone, and a Furan Mixture Blended in E10 and a Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Michael D. Kass, Christopher J. Janke, Raynella M. Connatser, Brian West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0011
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of four potential bio-derived blendstock molecules with infrastructure elastomers was determined by measuring the volume change following exposure. The blendstock molecules included 1-propanol, diisobutylene, cyclopentanone, and a furan mixture. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six nitrile rubbers (NBRs), and one each of fluorosilicone, neoprene, polyurethane, and silicone. The elastomers were exposed to the fuel molecules as blends ranging from 0 to 30 vol.% in both a blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) formulation and an E10 fuel. Silicone exhibited excessive swelling in each test fuel, while the other elastomers showed good compatibility (low swell) with diisobutylene, 1-propanol, and the furan mixture when BOB was used as the base fuel. The E10 base fuel produced high (>30%) swell in neoprene, polyurethane, and some nitrile rubbers. In most cases diisobutylene produced the least amount of volume expansion. In contrast, the addition of cyclopentanone produced unacceptably high swelling in each elastomer and is not considered suitable for use with these fuels. Analysis of the results showed that the swelling behavior is predominantly due to the polarity of…
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Key Characteristrics of the Sorption Process in Lean Nox Traps

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Kalyana Chakravarthy, C. S. Daw, K. E. Lenox
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
We study the NOx storage process in lean NOx traps using bench-flow experiments and simulated diesel exhaust. Given that formulation alone is an inadequate indicator of performance (due to the effects of manufacturing processes) a minimal set of experiments is always needed to compare the performance of LNTs. We define simple performance measures based on such a set of experiments that can be used to compare lean phase operations of various LNTs under various conditions concisely. Though the noble metal sites are essential for storage, the benefits of increasing noble metal loading start to wane beyond a certain limit. Our experiments suggest a possibility that a lean NOx reduction reaction may be occuring in LNTs. If this reaction is confirmed further in future experiments, its products need to be identified. The sorbent shifts the equilibrium between NO and NO2 towards NO. We propose an experimental protocol for generating the adsorption isotherm for NOx storage from equilibrium capacity measurements that can be used for verifying kinetic mechanisms and for developing simulation models.
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