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A Service-Based Modelling Approach to Ease the Certification of Multi-Core COTS Processors

ONERA-Frédéric Boniol, Youcef Bouchebaba, Julien Brunel, Kevin Delmas, Claire Pagetti, Thomas Polacsek, Nathanaël Sensfelder
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Phylog project aims at offering a model-based software-aided certification framework for aeronautical systems based on multi/many-core architectures. Certifying such platforms will entail fulfilling the high level objectives of the MCP-CRI / CAST-32A position paper. Among those, two types of analysis are required: interference and safety analyses. Because of the large size of the platforms and their complexity, those analyses can lead to combinatorial explosion and to some misinterpretation. To tackle these issues, we explore a service-based modelling approach that leads to a simplification of the analyses and to the highlighting of salient properties, making the adaptation of the certification argumentation efficient.
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Semi-Empirical Modelling of Erosion Phenomena for Ice Crystal Icing Numerical Simulation

ONERA-Virgile Charton, Pierre Trontin, Philippe Villedieu
SAFRAN Aircraft Engines-Gilles Aouizerate
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this work is to develop a semi-empirical model for erosion phenomena under ice crystal condition, which is one of the major phenomena for ice crystal accretion. Such a model would be able to calculate the erosion rate caused by impinging ice crystals on accreted ice layer.This model is based on Finnie [1] and Bitter [2] [3] solid/solid collision theory which assumes that metal erosion due to sand impingement is driven by two phenomena: cutting wear and deformation wear. These two phenomena are strongly dependent on the particle density, velocity and shape, as well as on the surface physical properties such as Young modulus, Poisson ratio, surface yield strength and hardness. Moreover, cutting wear is mostly driven by tangential velocity and is more effective for ductile eroded body, whereas deformation wear is driven by normal velocity and is more effective for brittle eroded body. Several researchers based their erosion modelling on these two phenomena such as Hutchings et al. [4] for deformation erosion, or Huang et al. [5] and Arabnejad et al. [6]…
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MUSIC-Haic: 3D Multidisciplinary Tools for the Simulation of In-Flight Icing due to High Altitude Ice Crystals

ONERA-Philippe Villedieu, Pierre Trontin
Darmstadt University of Technology-Ilia Roisman, Cameron Tropea
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing is a major hazard for aviation safety. Over the last decades an additional risk has been identified when flying in clouds with high concentrations of ice-crystals where ice accretion may occur on warm parts of the engine core, resulting in engine incidents such as loss of engine thrust, strong vibrations, blade damage, or even the inability to restart engines. Performing physical engine tests in icing wind tunnels is extremely challenging, therefore, the need for numerical simulation tools able to accurately predict ICI (Ice Crystal Icing) is urgent and paramount for the aeronautics industry, especially regarding the development of new generation engines (UHBR = Ultra High Bypass Ratio, CROR = Counter rotating Open Rotor, ATP = Advanced Turboprop) for which analysis methods largely based on previous engines experience may be less and less applicable. The European research project MUSIC-haic has been conceived to fill this gap and has started in September 2018. MUSIC-haic brings together the main European research institutions working on icing modelling as well as engine manufacturers and aircraft manufacturers. The project will…
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Experimental Investigation of High Speed SLD Impact

ONERA-Virginel BODOC, Pierre Berthoumieu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes an experimental investigation of fast impinging large droplets in non-icing conditions. Two main aspects of the impact event are analyzed and discussed: the impact dynamics as a function of the surface nature and the deposition rate of the liquid on the impingement surface for various conditions. The data has been recorded and characterized at ambient pressure and a temperature of the air between 5 and 10°C using a vertical wind/droplet tunnel. To avoid the droplets evaporation the relative humidity was controlled. The morphology of impact was studied by backlighted imagery and quantitative results were obtained by image analysis. The deposition rate was obtained weighting the water accumulated on the impingement plate. Examination of splashing events images obtained on a clean surface and on blotter paper shows important differences in terms of secondary drop generation. The measurement of the deposition rate confirmed that the dynamics of drop impingement on blotter paper is not the same as impingement on a clean surface. These differences may significantly impact the development of models for icing applications.
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A Penalization Method for 2D Ice Accretion Simulations

ONERA-Ghislain Blanchard, Emmanuel Radenac, Philippe Villedieu
Ecole Polytechnique Montreal-Pierre Lavoie, Eric Laurendeau
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical tools for 3D in-flight icing simulations are not straightforward to automate when seeking robustness and quality of the results. Difficulties arise from the geometry and mesh updates which need to be treated with care to avoid folding of the geometry, negative volumes or poor mesh quality. This paper aims at solving the mesh update issue by avoiding the re-meshing of the iced geometry. An immersed boundary method (here, penalization) is applied to a 2D ice accretion suite for multi-step icing simulations. The suggested approach starts from a standard body-fitted mesh, thus keeping the same solution for the first icing layer. Then, instead of updating the mesh, a penalization method is applied including: the detection of the immersed boundary, the penalization of the volume solvers to impose the boundary condition and the extraction of the surface data from the field solution. Although the current work is intended for 3D simulations, the content of this paper is limited to 2D applications to show the feasibility of the method. Tests are performed on multi-step rime and glaze…
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Boundary Layer and Heat Transfer Characterization on a Flat Plate with Realistic Ice Roughness

ONERA-Philippe Reulet, Bertrand Aupoix, David Donjat, Francis Micheli
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Numerical simulation of ice accretion on aircraft surfaces necessitates a good prediction of wall friction coefficient and wall heat transfer coefficient. After the icing process begins, surface roughness induces a high increase of friction and heat transfer, but simple Reynolds analogy is no longer valid. An experimental campaign is conducted to provide a database for numerical model development in the simple configuration of a heated flat plate under turbulent cold airflow conditions.The flat plate model is placed in the centre of the test section of a wind tunnel. The test model is designed according to constraints for the identification of friction and heat transfer coefficients. It includes three identical resin plates which are moulded to obtain a specified roughness on the upper surface exposed to the flow. Only the 3rd resin plate is heated on its lower face by an electrical heater connected to a temperature regulator. The evaluation of the friction coefficient is based on velocity profile measurements by laser Doppler Velocimetry. A methodology for heat transfer coefficient identification is defined. It is based…
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Modelling of Non-Spherical Particle Evolution for Ice Crystals Simulation with an Eulerian Approach

ONERA-E. Montreuil
CIRA Scpa-E. Iuliano
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In this study a comparison is made between results from three Eulerian-based computational methods that predict the ice crystal trajectories and impingement on a NACA-0012 airfoil. The computational methods are being developed within CIRA (Imp2D/3D), ONERA (CEDRE/Spiree) and University of Twente (MooseMBIce). Eulerian models describing ice crystal transport are complex because physical phenomena, like drag force, heat transfer and phase change, depend on the particle's sphericity. Few correlations exist for the drag of non-spherical particles and heat transfer of these particles. The effect or non-spherical particles on the collection efficiency will be shown on a 2D airfoil.
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Formal Methods for the Analysis of Critical Control Systems Models: Combining Non-Linear and Linear Analyses

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ONERA-Rémi Delmas, Pierre-loic Garoche, Pierre Roux
Georgia Tech Univ and Univ of Toulouse-Romain Jobredeaux
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2109
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Critical control systems are often built as a combination of a control core with safety mechanisms allowing to recover from failures. For example a PID controller used with triplicated inputs. Typically those systems would be designed at the model level in a synchronous language like Lustre or Simulink, and their code automatically generated from those models.In previous SAE symposium, we addressed the formal analysis of such systems - focusing on the safety parts - using a combination of formal techniques, ie. k-induction and abstract interpretation.The approach developed here extends the analysis of the system to the control core. We present a new analysis framework combining the analysis of open-loop stable controller with those safety constructs. We introduce the basic analysis approaches: abstract interpretation synthesizing quadratic invariants and backward analysis based on quantifier elimination. Then we apply it on a simple but representative example that no other available state-of-the-art technique is able to analyze.This contribution is another step towards early use of formal methods for critical embedded software such as the ones of the aerospace industry.
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A Personal Plane Air Transportation System - The PPlane Project

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ONERA-Claude Le Tallec, Antoine Joulia
Intergam Communications-Moshe Harel
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2697
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The seventh European Framework Program (FP7) “Personal Plane” project (PPlane) aims at developing system ideas to enable personal air transport in the long term (2030 and beyond). Such a system will avoid the ever increasing congestion on European roads and offer an alternative to the current conventional transport system across Europe, in particular in those states that still have poor highway and railway networks.The preliminary assumption made in the PPlane project is that automatisms should be developed to enable a “regular Joe” to use a personal aircraft, in various weather conditions, without any command and control difficulties, using a “push button” navigation interface. An on-board automatic system will take care of the complex issues of integration into the airspace (other sky users, class of airspace, Special Use Airspace…), navigation and emergency management.A systematic and innovative approach has been developed and implemented within the PPlane project in order to understand and analyze customers' needs and to propose novel ideas for a Personal Air Transport System (PATS). This system would satisfy the end users while respecting all…
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The NACRE Innovative Evaluation Platform and its Navigation & Control Strategies

ONERA-Peter Schmollgruber
NLR-Jan Breeman
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
Within the European Integrated Project NACRE (New Aircraft Concept REsearch) led by Airbus, a team of research centers and universities developed a multidisciplinary flying testbed called IEP (Innovative Evaluation Platform). Under the form of a dynamically scaled model of a future civil transport aircraft, its role is to assist engineers during the assessment of flight dynamics characteristics and noise reduction capabilities.After the feasibility study during which potential scientific and economical benefits of such new test facility have been identified, the team decided to design and manufacture the IEP. Because of the dual aspect of the system (it is a flying unmanned aerial vehicle and a test facility), an extensive requirement analysis has been carried out by the partners in order to identify the necessary operational modes and their associated navigation and control strategies.The navigation algorithm implemented in the IEP is based on a control geometry around the airplane which is used to sense the target flight path progression in three dimensions. This approach provides a look ahead functionality to increase the control performance without increasing…
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