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Experimental Investigations of an Icing Protection System for UAVs

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Richard Hann, Kasper Borup, Artur Zolich, Håvard Vestad, Martin Steinert, Tor Johansen
UBIQ Aerospace-Kim Sorensen
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
UAV icing is a severe challenge that has only recently shifted into the focus of research. Today, there are no mature icing mitigation technologies for UAVs, except for the largest fixed-wing drones. We are working on the development of an electro-thermal icing protection technology called D•ICE for medium-sized fixed-wing UAVs. As part of the design process, an experimental test campaign at the Cranfield icing wind tunnel has been conducted. This paper describes the icing protection system and shares experimental results on its capability for icing detection and anti-icing. Icing detection is based on an algorithm evaluating temperature signals that are induced on the leading-edge of the wing. A baseline signal is generated during dry (icing cloud off) conditions and compared to a signal during wet (icing cloud on) conditions. Due to significant differences in the heat transfer regime, the system can differentiate between these two states. The experiments show that our system can reliably detect icing conditions based on this principle. Furthermore, the anti-icing capability of the system is proven for two icing cases. The…
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UAV Icing: Ice Accretion Experiments and Validation

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Richard Hann
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Atmospheric icing is a key challenge to the operational envelope of medium-sized fixed-wing UAVs. Today, several numeric icing codes exist, that all have been developed for general aviation applications. UAVs with wingspans of several meters typically operate at Reynolds numbers an order of magnitude lower than commercial and military aircraft. Therefore, the question arises to what extent the existing codes can be applied for low-Reynolds UAV applications to predict ice accretion. This paper describes an experimental campaign at the Cranfield icing wind tunnel on a RG-15 and a NREL S826 airfoil at low velocities (25-40m/s). Three meteorological icing conditions have been selected to represent the main ice typologies: rime, glaze, and mixed ice. Each case has been run at least twice in order to assess the repeatability of the experiments. Manual ice shape tracings have been taken at three spanwise locations for each icing case. The liquid water content calibration was performed according to ARP5905 using the icing blade method. The tests have initially shown significantly higher water contents than anticipated, which could be traced…
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Ignition and Combustion Process of a Steam Injected Diesel Engine (STID) Studied in a Constant Volume Rig

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Marie Bysveen, Terje Almås
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
A new engine concept using direct injection of super heated steam in diesel engines is studied in a Constant Volume Bomb (CVB).The basic idea behind the Steam Injected Diesel Engine (STID) is to reduce the emissions of both particulates and NOx in addition to increasing the efficiency. By using air cooling and exhaust heat to generate the steam, the STID engine is believed to achieve an increase in the shaft efficiency and a substantial reduction of NOx and particulates emissions.This paper presents results from studies of the influence of superheated steam injection on the ignition delay. The justification for the study is the large amount of steam injected necessary for the STID engine and the need for studying the effect of superheated steam on engine operation.The background for the study is the massive steam injection necessary for the STID engine, and a detailed study is required when it comes to its effect on engine operation.Different ratios of air-to-steam mass and steam-to-fuel are selected in the range present in the Wasa 32 engine used for STID…
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Fuel Quality Evaluation by Changing the Compression Ratio in a Hydraulic Dynamic Combustion Rig

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Marie Bysveen, Terje Almås
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents results from experiments concerning diesel injection in a hydraulically actuated dynamic combustion rig.One of the main aims of study was to investigate the effect of changes in the compression ratio of the dynamic combustion rig on the diesel spray development, ignition and early combustion phase.Schlieren and shadowgraph images were taken of the injection and early combustion phase, together with recordings of the most important process parameters. The schlieren and the shadowgraph techniques for visualisation are powerful methods for studying spray development, ignition and combustion of the diesel process.Tests carried out on the rig clearly demonstrate the value of the set up as a tool for investigations of changes in the compression ratio on the ignition and early flame development in general. The schlieren images presented from this study also contribute to the physical understanding of the ignition phase in diesel combustion as a function of compression ratio. In addition, the study also presents the dynamic Combustion Rig as a tool for basic HCCI research.The rig gives the options to separate wide range…
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Aspects on Plant Growth Using EMCS Hardware

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)-Anders Johnsson, Gunnar Prytz, Tor-Henning Iversen, Håkon Svare, Johnny Svendsen, Knut R. Fossum
ESTEC/ESA-Peter Schiller
Published 2001-07-09 by SAE International in United States
As a link in the development of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) and under a separate contract with ESA (FUMO Study), functionality and biocompatibility studies of plants have been performed. The main goal has been to test if a breadboard (FUMO BB) containing major components planned for use in the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is optimal for space experiments with plant material. Initially in the study the authors had to perform technical improvements in order to facilitate a more optimal function of the BB-model. A test plan and the experimental set-up for the verification of the biocompatibility and biological functionality included a selection of a few model plant species [Lepidium sativum L. (cress) and Arabidopsis thaliana ] which could be tested at different developmental levels of morphological and physiological complexity. The following test aspects were focused on in order to clarify the biological functionality of the FUMO H/W: Illumination [fluorescent lamps and light emission diodes (LED)], Life Support, Humidity Control, Water Supply, Observation, Short and Long Term Plant Growth Experiments and Contamination Prevention.The…
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