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Effect of Vehicle's Front End Profile on Pedestrian's Lower Extremity Injury Pattern in Real World and Verification by Large Male FE Human Model

Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe, Munenori Shinada
RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Logistic regression analysis for accident cases of NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) clearly shows that the extent and the degree of pedestrian's lower extremity injury depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, bumper to knee ratio, bumper lead angle, age of the pedestrian, and posture of the pedestrian at the time of impact. The pedestrian population is divided in 3 groups, equivalent to small-shorter, medium-height and large-taller pedestrian with respect to the “pedestrian to BLE height-ratio” in order to quantify the degree of influence of lower leg injuries in each group. Large adult male finite element model (95th percentile male: 190 cm and 103 kg) was developed by morphing the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA) 50th percentile male. Lower extremity of developed large male was fine meshed to predict the fractures accurately. A car model was systematically morphed to create different designs having various front end profile dimensions. Large male model with…
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Study of an EGR System for Downsizing Turbocharged Gasoline Engine to Improve Fuel Economy

Nissan-Daisuke Takaki, Hirofumi Tsuchida, Tetsuya Kobara, Mitsuhiro Akagi, Takeshi Tsuyuki, Morihiro Nagamine
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a study of a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system applied to a turbocharged gasoline engine for improving fuel economy. The use of a higher compression ratio and further engine downsizing have been examined in recent years as ways of improving the fuel efficiency of turbocharged gasoline engines. It is particularly important to improve fuel economy under high load conditions, especially in the turbocharged region. The key points for improving fuel economy in this region are to suppress knocking, reduce the exhaust temperature and increase the specific heat ratio.There are several varieties of cooled EGR systems such as low-pressure loop EGR (LP-EGR), high-pressure loop EGR (HP-EGR) and other systems. The LP-EGR system was chosen for the following reasons. It is possible to supply sufficient EGR under a comparatively highly turbocharged condition at low engine speed. It is important for knocking suppression to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the EGR gas, which means using EGR gas from the catalyst downstream.On the other hand, the lower differential pressure and longer EGR route that characterize…
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Estimation of Pelvis Injuries and Head Impact Time using Different Pedestrian Human FE Models

Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Satheesh Narayanan
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A logistic regression analysis of accident cases in the NASS-PCDS (National Automotive Sampling System-Pedestrian Crash Data Study) database clearly shows that pedestrian pelvis injuries tend to be complex and depend on various factors such as the impact speed, the ratio of the pedestrian height to that of the bonnet leading edge (BLE) of the striking vehicle, and the gender and age of the pedestrian. Adult female models (50th %ile female AF50: 161 cm and 61 kg; 5th %ile female AF05: 154 cm and 50 kg) were developed by morphing the JAMA 50th %ile male AM50 and substituting the pelvis of the GHBMC AM50 model. The fine-meshed pelvis model thus obtained is capable of predicting pelvis fractures. Simulations conducted with these models indicate that the characteristics of pelvis injury patterns in male and female pedestrians are influenced by the hip/BLE height ratio and to some extent by the pelvis bone shape. A previously developed six-year-old (6YO) child pedestrian model and the newly developed models were used to estimate the head impact time (HIT) for a typical…
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Estimation of Body Mass Index Effect on Lower Extremity Injuries for Lateral Collision With-out Airbag

Nissan-Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
RNTBCI-Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Satheesh Narayanan
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries. Occurrence of pelvis injury was found to be influenced by BMI and was validated with logistic regression analysis. Apart from BMI, gender…
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Development of High Efficiency and Compact Bumper Recycling Equipment

Nissan-Atsushi Mizutani
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the development of high efficiency and compact bumper recycling equipment for facilitating bumper recycling globally. Various equipment to remove paint coat from bumper has been developed since 90s', using mechanical, physical or chemical method. However, it is difficult to promote bumper recycling without realizing cost effective overall system from paint coat removal to pelletizing.Our company jointly developed method of mechanically removing paint coat and has committed to bumper recycling in the form of outsourcing since 2000. In 2010, a dedicated plant for recycling bumpers was launched on the premises of our Oppama Assembly Plant in Japan.In the future, promoting bumper recycling at other overseas assembly plants is necessary as vehicle production will expand globally. Having more compact and cost effective recycling system compared to the one at the Oppama plant is required since the scale of the system including bumper crushing, paint coat removal, and pelletizing has to match processing capacity at these plants rather than equipping large one like Oppama's.With this reason, the newly developed equipment includes renewed machines for bumper…
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Performance Evolution of a One-motor Two-Clutch Parallel Full Hybrid System

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan-Kayo Otokawa, Koichi Hayasaki, Tatsuo Abe, Kenichiro Gunji
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1797
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the performance evolution and key breakthroughs of the world's first one-motor two-clutch (1M2CL) parallel full hybrid system without a torque converter that was developed and implemented on a hybrid luxury sedan in November 2010.The high potential of this hybrid system was brought out further to improve fuel economy without sacrificing acceleration performance. The resultant second generation of the 1M2CL parallel full hybrid system was applied to a hybrid premium sports sedan in August 2013. In order to improve these performance attributes, the following key technical measures were adopted: 1Motor torque during the EV mode was increased to expand the EV drive region.2Maximum motor torque and battery power at engine startup were boosted to reduce the engine start time.3Integrated control of the motor and clutches was improved.4Mechanical efficiencies were improved for higher fuel economy.Increasing the motor torque was an especially key technical measure for expanding the EV drive region and reducing the engine start time. That was achieved by confirming system durability based on extensive data obtained in public road testing. As a…
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Development of an Integrated Electrified Powertrain for a Newly Developed Electric Vehicle

Nissan-Hirofumi Shimizu, Takahito Okubo, Izuho Hirano, Shigeaki Ishikawa, Makoto Abe
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a newly developed electrified powertrain that incorporates various energy-saving improvements and is intended for use on a 2013 model year EV. Based on a 2011 model year EV that was specifically designed and engineered as a mass-produced EV, this powertrain integrates the traction motor, inverter and charging unit to achieve a smaller, lighter package for expanding application to more vehicles. Integration of the motor and inverter in particular reduced the part count for enhanced assembly ease, in addition to reducing heat transfer, noise and vibration. The specific features described in the paper are the three points below.Improving the layout of the inverter parts in order to downsize and integrate the inverter with the motor.Reducing the transfer of heat from the motor to the inverter.Reducing the excitation forces of the motor and optimizing the inverter for noise and vibration.
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Comparison of Dummy Kinematics and Injury Response between WorldSID and ES-2 in Side Impact

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nissan-Kazuya Iwata, Kaoru Tatsu, Hidetsugu Saeki, Tomosaburo Okabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0599
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A new highly biofidelic side impact dummy, the WorldSID 50th percentile male, has been developed under the supervision of the International Organization for Standardization in order to harmonize a number of existing side impact dummies in one single dummy. Momentum is growing for using the WorldSID in safety tests in the EU and the US. In the present study, two Euro-NCAP pole side impact tests were conducted to compare ES-2 and WorldSID responses in a mid-size SUV with respective seating positions as stipulated in the Euro-NCAP test conditions and fitted with the same side airbag. It was found that, compared with ES-2, the chest, abdomen and pelvis accelerations of WorldSID are more sensitive to variation in the applied external load transmitted by the deployed side airbag and door intrusion.
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Method Development of Multi-Dimensional Accident Analysis Using Self Organizing Map

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Nissan-Hitoshi Uno, Yusuke Kageyama, Akira Yamaguchi, Tomosaburo Okabe
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0758
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Implementation of appropriate safety measures, either from the viewpoint of a vehicle or the society or the infra-structure, it is an important issue to clearly understand the multi-dimension complicated real world accident scenarios. This study proposes a new method to easily capture and to extract the essence of such complicated multi-dimension mutual relationship by visualizing the results of SOM (Self Organizing Map).The FARS data from 2010 is used to generate a dataset comprised of 16,180 fatal passenger car drivers and 48 variables. The 16,180 fatal drivers were clustered using hierarchy cluster analysis method and mapped into a two-dimensional square with one dot representing one fatal driver using SOM.From the SOM assessment of the 16,180 fatal drivers, five clusters were created, and they are characterized as follows: Cluster 1 (Interstate highway accidents), Cluster 2 (Drunk speeding), Cluster 3 (Non speeding lane departure), Cluster 4 (Vehicle to vehicle) and Cluster 5 (Intersection).The number of fatalities in Clusters 1 and 2 could be possibly reduced by application of CA (Crash Avoidance) technologies and stricter enforcement of traffic laws.…
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New Vibration Control Methodology in Engine Mount System for Low-Fuel Consumption Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan-Yusuke Sato, Masahiko Kondo
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1703
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
With growing demands for better fuel economy and reduced carbon emissions there is a need for smaller and more fuel efficient engines. At the same time, to improve passenger comfort there are also demands placed on improved vehicle quietness [1]. A Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) system or a higher compression ratio system can be used to obtain better fuel economy but the enhanced combustion rate causes an increase in engine vibration in the medium to high frequency range [2, 3]. To ensure vehicle quietness, this issue of structure-borne noise that is transmitted from the engine mounts to the body must be addressed.In this paper a simple anti-vibration active mount system is introduced that can significantly reduce structure-borne noise at medium to high frequencies. This is achieved by adding mass to the insulator which leads to resonance at lower frequencies, in order to obtain double anti-vibration performance. This works to significantly reduce the transmission of approximately 300Hz to 1000Hz noise to the body. To suppress the increased vibration due to resonance of added mass, a…
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