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Acceleration Sound Preference from a CVT Perspective

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Hiroyuki Nakajima
Nissan Technical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana, John DeYoung
Published 2014-11-04 by SAE International in United States
The fuel economy benefits of Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) technology have led to a steady growth in their adoption since the 1990's that is likely to continue despite the competition from Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) & Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) technology. Even though CVTs provide a smoother driving experience due to their “shift-free” operation, general market feedback indicates some level of consumer dissatisfaction in the area of acceleration sound quality. This is particularly evident in the sub-compact and compact vehicle segments that feature small four cylinder engines with cost/weight limited sound packaging. The dissatisfaction with the acceleration sound quality is primarily linked to the non-linear relationship between engine RPM and vehicle speed that is inherent to CVTs and is often referred to as “rubber-band” feel.For this paper, a NVH driving simulator was employed to create several acceleration sounds with varying engine RPM versus vehicle speed characteristics. These sounds included conventional and modified CVT ramp ups as well as simulated Automatic Transmission (A/T) type shifts. Jury evaluations were conducted on the NVH driving simulator using a…
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Development of a New Multi-link Rear Suspension

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Reo Koide, Yoshihiro Kawabe, Keiichi Nakajima, Kiriyama Kazuhiro
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0978
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The requirements of suspension systems have become increasingly complex in recent years due to the expansion of global markets and diversification of the conditions under which vehicles are used in different parts of the world. It is also becoming increasingly important to ensure that vehicles offer the secure handling stability which are expected by drivers, but can also provide an adequate level of ride comfort when driving on a wide diversity of road surfaces in all parts of the world. From an environmental viewpoint, it is also essential to achieve weight reductions for better fuel economy.To meet these wide-ranging requirements, we have developed a new multi-link rear suspension that has a simple link configuration and a lower link that features a connecting bushing mechanism developed by Nissan. This innovative new connecting bushing mechanism not only helps to provide better handling stability by ensuring high stiffness and an adequate level of compliance steer, but also helps to improve the ride comfort by suitably controlling the behavior of tires when they encounter irregularities in the road surface,…
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Control System for Sensing the Differential Pressure Between Air and Hydrogen in a PEFC

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Yoshitomo Asai
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Stress induced by an excessive difference in pressure between the air and the hydrogen in polymer electrolyte fuel cells degrades membrane durability. Controlling such stress improves the durability and solves one of the problems hampering commercialization of fuel cell electric vehicles. Hydrogen pressure can be raised more rapidly than the air pressure by regulating the pressure of the high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. However, the response for reducing the hydrogen pressure varies depending on the level of current generation. The air pressure can be reduced rapidly by releasing air, whereas it takes longer to raise the air pressure owing to compression of the air taken in from the atmosphere. The method proposed here for designing the control system of the air pressure and mass flow rate assumes that the system is based on the use of a mathematical model, whereas the hydrogen pressure control system does not employ a mathematical model and treats the consumption of hydrogen during power generation as a disturbance. The air pressure is predicted using transfer functions and the hydrogen pressure is…
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Development of a Transparent Nanocomposite for Automobile Polymer Glazing

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Takashi Oda, Katsumi Morohoshi, Yasuaki Kai
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A new transparent resin material developed by uniformly dispersing a nano-filler (boehmite particles, 5 nm in diameter and 197 nm long) in polycarbonate resin combines a flexural modulus of 5.9 GPa, a linear expansion coefficient of 35 ppm/K, and excellent mechanical toughness with excellent optical characteristics (transparency with 1.1% haze at 1 mm thick). These characteristics make this material highly suitable as a replacement for automotive glass that allows innovative design, a liberating sense of openness for automobiles.
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Development of a Finite Element Model of the Flex-PLI-GTR

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Susumu Suzuki, Masamoto Ono, Sou Natori, Toshihiro Araki
ESI Group, Shanghai-Pierre Culiere, Alex Wang
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Evaluation of pedestrian leg protection performance using the Flex-PLI-GTR (Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor Global Technical Regulation) impactor is initiated in JNCAP in 2011. Therefore, a finite element (FE) model of Flex-PLI-GTR is needed for use in digital car development in order to satisfy pedestrian leg protection performance requirements. This paper describes the FE model of Flex-PLI-GTR that has been developed to meet this need.There are three important features of this FE model for obtaining sufficient simulation accuracy. First, the shapes of all Flex-PLI-GTR structures were modeled in detail. Shape information of the inner structures was obtained by computerized tomography scanning and shape information of the inner structures of the outer skin was obtained by laser measurement. Furthermore, the shape of the wrapped skin was incorporated into the FE model based on a wrapping simulation. Second, the material and mechanical properties except the outer skin and rubber were set based on publicly released information without any tuning. The material properties of the outer skin and rubber were obtained experimentally using test pieces under different strain rates.…
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HEV Application of Shaking Vibration Control System Based on Advanced Motor Control

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Satoru Fujimoto, Kazutaka Adachi, Hiroyuki Ashizawa, Jun Motosugi
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A hybrid system that has been put on the market by Nissan Motor Company was configured by removing the torque convertor with a lockup clutch from a conventional 7-speed automatic transmission and installing a clutch and a motor in its place. This hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has a simple structure and is expected to improve fuel economy and responsiveness because it eliminates the torque convertor. One issue for this system is that an abrupt change in the input torque could cause torsional vibration of the drive shaft, resulting in a severe degradation of ride comfort. To solve this problem, an original vibration control system that was adapted for the mass-produced LEAF electric vehicle was also adapted for use on this HEV fitted with an engine and a 7-speed automatic transmission. This control system enables the hybrid vehicle to generate maximum motor torque at launch and also provides significant advantages for vehicle design. Moreover, the hybrid vehicle can still provide its intrinsic benefits even when strongly accelerated by adding the motor torque to the engine torque.…
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High-efficiency NOx Trap Catalyst with Highly Dispersed Precious Metal for Low Precious Metal Loading

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Katsuo Suga, Tetsuro Naito, Yasunari Hanaki, Masanori Nakamura, Kazuyuki Shiratori, Yoshiaki Hiramoto, Yoshiaki Tanaka
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a newly developed NOx trap catalyst that achieves cleaner exhaust gas using much smaller quantities of precious metals. The precious metal loading of this NOx trap catalyst has been halved by developing a technique for inhibiting precious metal sintering even under exposure to high temperature exhaust gas and a trap material with improved catalyst functions at low temperature. This NOx trap catalyst is used on the Nissan X-TRAIL fitted with a diesel engine, which was the first vehicle to comply with Japan's Post New Long term Exhaust Emission Regulations.
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Internal Residual Stress Measurement of Aluminum Alloy Castings Using Neutron Diffraction

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Yumi Kubota, Jun Kubo, Keitaro Ishida, Akinori Okada, Minoru Yoshida
Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Toru Saito, Hiroshi Suzuki
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0549
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
When designing engine parts of motor vehicles, it is important to evaluate internal residual stresses that cause crack growth and influence the strength of parts. Internal stresses can be measured nondestructively by the neutron diffraction method. However, it is difficult to apply this method to aluminum alloy castings because they consist of coarse crystal grains. As for cylinder heads, the grain size ranges up to approximately 400 μm and there are few grains contributing to intensity of diffraction in each gauge volume. In the case of X-ray diffraction, "the oscillation method" has been employed for materials with coarse grains.In this study, the applicability of the oscillation method to aluminum alloy castings was investigated with the aim of establishing a method of measuring internal stresses and strains. A related objective was to determine the accuracy of stresses. For the purpose of the study, specimens made of an aluminum alloy casting and measuring 20x20x140 mm in size were prepared and subjected to a bending load. A neutron diffraction experiment with oscillations was conducted, and the strain values…
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Effect of Impact-Triggered Automatic Braking in Multiple Impact Crashes

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Atsushi Togawa, Daisuke Murakami, Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes an impact-triggered automatic braking system as a potential safety improvement based on the characteristics of the Multiple Impact Crashes (MICs). The system activates with a signal of airbag deployment in a collision to reduce the vehicle speed in the subsequent collisions. The effectiveness was estimated by an in-depth review of the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). The cases were extracted on the basis of the 3-point lap and shoulder belted occupants, incurring Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale level 3 to 6 injuries (MAIS 3+), in the crashes occurred from 2004 to 2006, without vehicle rollover or occupant ejection, where the involved vehicles were 2000 and newer model year cars and light trucks. They were classified into three categories: (a) Single Impact Crash (SIC), (b) Multiple Impact Crash in which the Severest Impact Event occurred at the 1st collision (MIC-SIE 1) and (c) Multiple Impact Crash in which the Severest Impact Event occurred at or after the 2nd Impact Event (MIC-SIE 2+). Among the MIC-SIE 2+, we focused on the cases where…
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Development of a Two-Stage Variable Displacement Vane Oil Pump

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Taguchi Arata, Kenji Ariga, Akira Yamashita
Pierburg Pump Technology Italy SpA-Nicola Novi, Giacomo Armenio
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Various technologies for improving the environmental performance of vehicles have been vigorously developed in the automotive industry in recent years. In this regard, the core technologies for improving vehicle fuel economy are still mostly aimed at internal combustion engines. This paper presents a new variable displacement oil pump (VDOP) that was adopted for enhancing the fuel economy of a newly developed 1.2-liter three-cylinder supercharged gasoline direct injection engine. It describes the purpose, benefits, performance and variable displacement principle of the VDOP. Published papers concerning the development of the new engine, the friction reduction technologies it embodies and additional details of the mechanisms incorporated in the new oil pump are cited in the references for the further information of the reader.
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