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In-cylinder flow design based on the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuko Mito, Taisuke Shiraishi, Atsushi Teraji
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2210
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Dilution combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been applied for the improvement of thermal efficiency. In order to stabilize the high diluted combustion, it is important to form an appropriate turbulence in the combustion cylinder. Turbulent intensity needs to be strengthened to increase the combustion speed, while too strong turbulence causes ignition instability. In this study, the factor of combustion instability under high diluted conditions was analyzed by using single cylinder engine test, optical engine test and 3D CFD simulation. Finally, methodology of in-cylinder flow design is attempted to build without any function by taking into account the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion.
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New CO2 / Fuel Consumption Certification Cycles and Design Implications for Fuel Efficient Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takumaru Sagawa, Sachiko Okuda
TOTAL Marketing & Services-Gautier Burette, Khalid Ait Hammou, Mickaël Debord, Loïc Marlière
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2367
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
During this decade, the constant increase and globalization of passenger car sales has led countries to adopt a common language for the treatment of CO2 and other pollutant emissions. In this regard, the WLTC - World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle - stands as the new global reference cycle for fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions across the globe.Regulations keep a constant pressure on CO2 emission reduction leading vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers to modify hardware to ensure compliance. Within this balance, lubricants remain worthwhile contributors to lowering CO2 emission and fuel consumption. Yet with WTLC, new additional lubricant designs are likely to be required to ensure optimized friction due to its new cycle operating conditions, associated powertrain hardware and worldwide product use.Through friction torque and vehicle test campaigns, NISSAN and TOTAL have conducted a complete study to assess particularly how the Fuel Economy (FE) lubricants originally designed for JC08 (official Japanese driving cycle) or NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) will perform on the new WTLC.Beyond this initial state of art, the study was designed…
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Design Methodology for Motor Thermal Management in Vehicle Electrification

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshikazu Tsuruoka, Masaaki Kubo, Tsuyoshi Yamamuro
NISSAN AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.-Kengo Sakao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2368
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the accuracy of the coil temperature prediction, detailed fundamental experiments have been conducted on thermal resistances that are caused by the void air gap and contact surfaces. The thermal resistance of the coil around the air gap can be calculated by an air gap distance and air heat conductivity. Contact surface thermal resistance between the core and the housing was constant regardless of the press-fitting state in this experiment. Prediction accuracy of the coil temperature is improved by including the heat resistance characteristics that is obtained by the basic experiment to conjugate heat transfer analysis model.
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A Study of Particulate Emission Formation Mechanism from Injector Tip in Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Yutaka Hashizume, Takao Inoue, Taisuke Shiraishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2244
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The mechanism causing in-cylinder injector tip soot formation, which is the main source of particle number (PN) emissions under operating conditions after engine warm-up, was analyzed in this study. The results made clear a key parameter for reducing injector tip soot PN emissions. An evaluation of PN emissions for different amounts of injector tip wetting revealed that an injector with larger tip wetting forms higher PN emissions. The results also clarified that the amount of deposits does not have much impact on PN emissions. The key parameter for reducing injector tip soot is injector tip wetting that has a linear relationship with injector tip soot PN emissions.
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Low Friction and Low Viscosity Final Drive Oil

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Tomoo Kubo, Naoto Akie, Yuji Okamoto, Sachiko Okuda, Takumaru Sagawa
JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation-Mona Ariyama, Hitoshi Komatsubara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2336
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The new lubricant was newly developed for differential gear unit to contribute to all friction factors/conditions (Boundary, Hydrodynamic & those Mixed Lubrication) even if the differential gear is operating under very severe conditions such as high-gear-contact pressure and highly sliding speed. The main concept of development was selecting and formulating the optimized additives for severe lubrication conditions in order to achieve the best balance between thinner-film thickness and extreme pressure performance. In conclusion, by the application of both synthetic base oil instead of mineral one and activation technology of MoDTC in spite of ZnDTP free formulation, it is finally realized to reduce the torque of final drive unit by 40% and it can be estimated the 0.5% of CO2 reduction in actual vehicles.
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Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Hamada, Daisuke Kobayashi, Mitsushi Oyanagi, Takashi Tanabe
Daido Steel Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ando
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A new variable compression turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has a multi-link system for controlling the compression ratio from 8:1 to 14:1, requires high axial force for fastening the multi-links because of high input loads and the downsizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt with plastic region tightening. One of the biggest technical concerns is delayed fracture. In this study, quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for the 1.6-GPa tensile strength bolt. To improve delayed fracture resistance along with high strength, the chemical composition and heat treatment conditions were optimized as follows: 1) High strength: Increase of C and Si contents and higher austenitizing temperature before quenching. 2) Delayed fracture resistance equal to current bolts: Fine carbide spheroidization by high temperature tempering and formation of hydrogen traps by adding Mo. 3) Suppression of strength reduction due to high temperature tempering for compatibility of strength and delayed fracture resistance: Improvement of tempering softening resistance with the addition of Cr and high Mo content. Based on the results of tensile tests…
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Wheel Shape Factors

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kenichi Hirose, Hideyuki Kawamata, Munehiko Oshima
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0667
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wheels play an important role in determining the aerodynamic drag of passenger vehicles. This is because the contribution of wheels to aerodynamic drag comes from not only the wheels themselves, but also from the interference effect between wheel wakes and the base wake. As far as the authors are aware, there have been no reports about aerodynamic drag sensitivity to wheel shape factors for different vehicle types and different exterior body shapes. The purpose of this study was to clarify CD sensitivity to wheel shape factors for a sedan and an SUV, including different rear fender shapes. Many different wheel configurations were investigated in terms of the CD, base pressure and flow fields in wind tunnel tests. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to clarify CD sensitivity to each wheel shape factor based on the test data. This study revealed high CD sensitivity factors for both the sedan and SUV. The findings show that wheel shape factors and related CD sensitivities provide design guidelines for reducing aerodynamic drag.
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Failure Prediction for Robot Reducers by Combining Two Machine Learning Methods

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yasuhiro Tanaka, Toru Takagi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There are many production robots used at car manufacturing plants, and each of them is fitted with several reducers. A breakdown of one of these reducers may cause a huge loss due to the stoppage of all production lines. Therefore, condition-based maintenance is currently being used to predict failures by predetermined thresholds for average and standard deviations. However, this method can cause many false alarms or some false negatives. There are some ways of suppressing false alarms, such as detecting a change in the probability density function. However, when false alarms are suppressed using the probability density function in the operational range, some false negatives may occur, leading to a breakdown of a reducer and huge loss. A false negative is caused by overlooking an anomaly with slight changes and it is difficult to detect using only the probability density function. Therefore, we developed the Difference Signum Method (DSM) to detect an anomaly with slight changes by focusing on such changes. Although DSM reduces false negatives, it can cause many false alarms. This paper proposes…
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Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hiroyuki Abeta, Yusuke Minagawa
Argonne National Laboratory-Theodore Bohn
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry.The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems. Several automakers, suppliers and government employees worked together to create a test plan, perform the testing and analyze the results.To evaluate the interoperability, performance, and electromagnetic emissions of this technology, a bench test program was created, supported by the SAE J2954 WPT and Alignment…
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