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Is the “K Value” of an Engine Truly Fuel Independent?

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masaharu Kassai, Taisuke Shiraishi
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH-Sandro Gail
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0615
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The octane appetite of an engine is frequently characterised by the so-called K value. It is usually assumed that K is dependent only on the thermodynamic conditions in the engine when knock occurs. In this work we test this hypothesis: further analysis was conducted on experimental results from SAE 2019-01-0035 in which a matrix of fuels was tested in a single cylinder engine. The fuels consisted of a relatively small number of components, thereby simplifying the analysis of the chemical kinetic proprieties.Through dividing the original fuel matrix into subsets, it was possible to explore the variation of K value with fuel properties. It was found that K value tends to increase slightly with RON. The explanation for this finding is that higher RON leads to advanced ignition timing (i.e. closer to MBT conditions) and advanced ignition timing results in faster combustion because of the higher pressures and temperatures reached in the thermodynamic trajectory. The Livengood-Wu integral can be employed to show that for higher octane fuels, knock onset occurs at a higher temperature and pressure.…
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The Development of JASO GLV-1 Next Generation Low Viscosity Automotive Gasoline Engine Oils Specification

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takumaru Sagawa, Sachiko Okuda
Infineum Japan, Ltd.-Taisuke Miyoshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1426
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well understood that using lower viscosity engine oils can greatly improve fuel economy [1, 2, 3, 4]. However, it has been impossible to evaluate ultra-low viscosity engine oils (SAE 0W-12 and below) utilizing existing fuel economy test methods. As such, there is no specification for ultra-low viscosity gasoline engine oils [5]. We therefore developed firing and motored fuel economy test methods for ultra-low viscosity oils using engines from Japanese automakers [6, 7, 8]. This was done under the auspices of the JASO Next Generation Engine Oil Task Force (“TF” below), which consists mainly of Japanese automakers and entities working in the petroleum industry. Moreover, the TF used these test methods to develop the JASO GLV-1 specification for next-generation ultra-low viscosity automotive gasoline engine oils such as SAE 0W-8 and 0W-12. In developing the JASO GLV-1 specification, Japanese fuel economy tests and the ILSAC engine tests for evaluating engine reliability were used. The fuel-saving performance and engine protection performance of four reference oils (two of them SAE 0W-8, the other two SAE 0W-16) and…
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Impact of EV Charging on Power System with High Penetration of EVs: Simulation and Quantitative Analysis Based on Real World Usage Data

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kenta Suzuki, Yuki Kobayashi, Kensuke Murai, Keigo Ikezoe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0531
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) has been announced worldwide with the aim of reducing CO2 emissions. However, a significant increase in electricity demand by EVs might impact the stable operation of the existing power grid. Meanwhile, EV charging is acceptable to most users if it is completed by the time of the next driving event. From the viewpoint of power grid operators, flexibility for shifting the timing of EV charging would be advantageous, including making effective use of renewable energy.In this work, an EV model and simulation tool were developed to make clear how the total charging demand of all EVs in use will be influenced by future EV specifications (e.g., charge power) and installation of charging infrastructure. Among the most influential factors, EV charging behavior according to use cases and regional characteristics were statistically analyzed based on the real-world usage data of over 14, 000 EVs and incorporated in the simulation tool. Using the resultant statistical model, the Monte Carlo method was applied to conduct a parameter simulation study of continuous EV usage.…
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Development of JASO GLV-1 0W-8 Low Viscosity Engine Oil for Improving Fuel Efficiency considering Oil Consumption and Engine Wear Performance

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Sachiko Okuda, Hiroki Saito, Seiichi Nakano, Yusuke Koike, Takumaru Sagawa
Aichi Machine Industry Co.,Ltd.-Keisuke Yoshida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1423
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine oil with viscosity lower than 0W-16 has been needed for improving fuel efficiency in the Japanese market. However, lower viscosity oil generally has negative aspects with regard to oil consumption and anti-wear performance. The technical challenges are to reduce viscosity while keeping anti-wear performance and volatility level the same as 0W-20 oil. They have been solved in developing a new engine oil by focusing on the molybdenum dithiocarbamate friction modifier and base oil properties. This paper describes the new oil that supports good fuel efficiency while reliably maintaining other necessary performance attributes.
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Comparison of Head Kinematics of Bicyclist in Car-to-Bicycle Impact

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Chinmoy Pal, Shigeru Hirayama
RNTBCI-Pratap Naidu Vallabhaneni, Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Jeyabharath Manoharan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0932
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study focused on European NCAP activities of introducing a new head protection evaluation procedure, as proposed by BASt (Federal Highway Research Institute - GERMANY). Various kinds of E-bikes are available in the market, ranging from E-bikes that have a small motor to assist the rider’s pedal-power i.e., pedelecs to somewhat more powerful E-bikes which is similar to a moped-style scooter. This paper focused on identifying the factors influencing bicyclist head kinematics during bicycle vs. passenger vehicle (PV) collisions at the intersection. Two AM50 bicyclist FE models are developed using i) GHBMC Human Body Model (HBM) and ii) WorldSID (WS) side impact dummy. Head kinematics of bicyclists of pedal-assist E-bike and normal bike were compared using CAE simulation. It is found that the vehicle’s impact velocity, type of bicycle, the mass of E-bike and bicycle traveling speed will influence the head kinematics.
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Aerodynamic Sensitivity Analysis of Tire Shape Factors

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Sena Kurachi, Hideyuki Kawamata, Kenichi Hirose, Munehiko Oshima, Shuji Suzuki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0669
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that the wheels and tires account for approximately 25% of the overall aerodynamic drag of a vehicle. This is because the contribution of the tires to aerodynamic drag stems from not only aerodynamic drag itself directly caused by exposure to the main flow (tire CD), but also from aerodynamic drag indirectly caused by the interference between tire wakes and the upper body flow (body CD). In the literature, as far as the authors are aware, there have been no reports that have included the following all four aspects at once: (1) CD sensitivity to detailed tire shape factors; (2) CD sensitivity differences due to different vehicle body types; (3) CD sensitivity for each aerodynamic drag component, i.e., tire CD and body CD; (4) Flow structure and mechanism contributing to each aerodynamic drag component. The purpose of this study was to clarify CD sensitivity to tire shape factors for tire CD and body CD considering two different vehicle body types, sedan and SUV. In wind tunnel testing, many tire configurations were prepared…
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Investigation of a Test Method to Reproduce Car-to-Car Side Impacts

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Matsuyama Takeo, Ryuji Ootani, Toshiyuki Ueda, Shigeru Hirayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1221
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A side impact is one of the severest crash configurations among real-world accidents. In the US market, even though most vehicles have achieved top ratings in crash performance assessment programs in recent years, there has hardly been any sign of a decline in side-impact fatalities for the last few years, according to statistics retrieved from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Fatality Analysis Reporting System. In response to this trend, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is planning to introduce a new test protocol for side impact assessment. One of the points to be clarified in current side impact tests is whether the present side moving deformable barrier (MDB), which includes the barrier face and cart, faithfully reproduces a real-world car-to-car crash. Hence, this study identifies key factors for reproducing car-to-car side impacts based on a series of parametric computer aided engineering (CAE) investigations of the barrier face dimensions and stiffness. Reproducibility of MDB tests was studied in terms of three indices of struck vehicle behavior (1) kinematics, (2) body deformation patterns (plan and…
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In-cylinder flow design based on the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuko Mito, Taisuke Shiraishi, Atsushi Teraji
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2210
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Dilution combustion with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been applied for the improvement of thermal efficiency. In order to stabilize the high diluted combustion, it is important to form an appropriate turbulence in the combustion cylinder. Turbulent intensity needs to be strengthened to increase the combustion speed, while too strong turbulence causes ignition instability. In this study, the factor of combustion instability under high diluted conditions was analyzed by using single cylinder engine test, optical engine test and 3D CFD simulation. Finally, methodology of in-cylinder flow design is attempted to build without any function by taking into account the representative scales of turbulence and premixed combustion.
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New CO2 / Fuel Consumption Certification Cycles and Design Implications for Fuel Efficient Lubricants

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Takumaru Sagawa, Sachiko Okuda
TOTAL Marketing & Services-Gautier Burette, Khalid Ait Hammou, Mickaël Debord, Loïc Marlière
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2367
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
During this decade, the constant increase and globalization of passenger car sales has led countries to adopt a common language for the treatment of CO2 and other pollutant emissions. In this regard, the WLTC - World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle - stands as the new global reference cycle for fuel consumption, CO2 and pollutant emissions across the globe.Regulations keep a constant pressure on CO2 emission reduction leading vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers to modify hardware to ensure compliance. Within this balance, lubricants remain worthwhile contributors to lowering CO2 emission and fuel consumption. Yet with WTLC, new additional lubricant designs are likely to be required to ensure optimized friction due to its new cycle operating conditions, associated powertrain hardware and worldwide product use.Through friction torque and vehicle test campaigns, NISSAN and TOTAL have conducted a complete study to assess particularly how the Fuel Economy (FE) lubricants originally designed for JC08 (official Japanese driving cycle) or NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) will perform on the new WTLC.Beyond this initial state of art, the study was designed…
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Design Methodology for Motor Thermal Management in Vehicle Electrification

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshikazu Tsuruoka, Masaaki Kubo, Tsuyoshi Yamamuro
NISSAN AUTOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.-Kengo Sakao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2368
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the accuracy of the coil temperature prediction, detailed fundamental experiments have been conducted on thermal resistances that are caused by the void air gap and contact surfaces. The thermal resistance of the coil around the air gap can be calculated by an air gap distance and air heat conductivity. Contact surface thermal resistance between the core and the housing was constant regardless of the press-fitting state in this experiment. Prediction accuracy of the coil temperature is improved by including the heat resistance characteristics that is obtained by the basic experiment to conjugate heat transfer analysis model.
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