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Wear Mechanisms of Steel Under Boundary Lubrication in Presence of Carbon Black and Graphite Nano-onions Particles

Nippon Oil Corporation-J. Igarashi
Ecole Centrale de Lyon-J. M. Martin, B. Vacher
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Both carbon blacks and carbon nano-onions nanoparticles have a spheroidal shape and a nested structure. They can be used to simulate the presence of soots in used engine oils. When added to fully formulated fresh engines oils, these two kinds of particles behave very differently. Carbon black particles are highly abrasive causing a lot of wear of steel surfaces and friction increases. At the opposite, the addition of carbon onions in lubricant leads to a reduction of both friction and wear compared to pure base oil. This shows that there is an opportunity to control wear in engines by changing the structure of soots during the combustion process.
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Impact Study of High Biodiesel Blends on Performance of Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

Nippon Oil Corporation-Takashi Kaneko
Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd.-Kazuhisa Saitou
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel Fuel (BDF) Research Work Group works on identifying technological issues on the use of high biodiesel blends (over 5 mass%) in conventional diesel vehicles under the Japan Auto-Oil Program started in 2007. The Work Group conducts an analytical study on the issues to develop measures to be taken by fuel products and vehicle manufacturers, and to produce new technological findings that could contribute to the study of its introduction in Japan, including establishment of a national fuel quality standard covering high biodiesel blends. For evaluation of the impacts of high biodiesel blends on performance of diesel particulate filter system, a wide variety of biodiesel blendstocks were prepared, ranging from some kinds of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to another type of BDF such as hydrotreated biodiesel (HBD). Evaluation was mainly conducted on blend levels of 20% and 50%, but also conducted on 10% blends and neat FAME in some tests. The evaluation test items include balance point temperature (BPT), DPF regeneration rate, active regeneration control of DPF system, PM composition analysis, and so on.…
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Development of High Performance Four-Cycle Motorcycle Engine Oils

Nippon Oil Corporation-Akira Yaguchi, Hiroyuki Hoshino, Kazuhiro Yagishita, Kenichi Komiya
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Masatoshi Akagi
Published 2008-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The environmental performance of automobiles and automobile engines in particular is the foremost issue in the automotive industry today. In addition, engine durability performance is an essential aspect of engine oil performance. Four-cycle motorcycle engine oils formulated with dialkyl phosphate, a sulfur-free additive developed as an alternative to ZDDP, provide excellent environmental and durability performance in terms of longer drain intervals, cleanliness and low corrosion properties.
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Study of Eco-Friendly Four-Cycle Motorcycle Engine Oils

Nippon Oil Corporation-Akihiro OHASHI, Mitsuaki ISHIMARU, Kazuhiro YAGISHITA, Akira YAGUCHI
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Masatoshi AKAGI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-32-0080
Published 2007-10-30 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
With environmental issues at the forefront of the automotive industries, there is a clear need to improve the fuel economy and longer drain performance of four-cycle motorcycle engine oils. Evaluation of oil consumption in actual engines was used to clarify an optimal volatility for engine oils, and the feasibility of using zinc dialkyl phosphate, a sulfur-free additive, as an alternative to ZDTP for improved of fuel economy performance was studied. Engine oils with optimized additives demonstrated excellent friction characteristics and wet clutch performance.
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Design and Performance of Low-Viscosity ATF

Nippon Oil Corporation-Isao Kurihara, Osamu Kurosawa
Published 2007-10-29 by SAE International in United States
Low-viscosity automatic transmission fluids (ATF) have advantages in terms of lower churning losses and lower drag resistance in the automatic transmission (AT) and higher transmission efficiency. While a low viscosity is effective to the improvement of fuel economy, there is a risk of degraded fatigue prevention performances or anti-wear properties of the ATF, which can have an adverse effect on the reliability of the AT. Consequently, the use of current low-viscosity ATFs were limited to AT units that were specially developed to use them. The aim of our study was to resolve these problems and improve the general versatility of low-viscosity ATFs. We developed a low-viscosity ATF having high reliability by designing its viscosity based on the field test data involving conventional commercial fluids of normal viscosity design (7.4mm2/s@100°C), and by optimizing the blend of base stocks and viscosity index improvers (VI improvers). Various laboratory tests and DEXRON® specification tests showed that the newly developed low-viscosity ATF provides fatigue resistance and anti-wear protection as good or better than conventional ATF. Moreover, this developed ATF showed…
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Study of Future Engine Oil (First Report): Future Engine Oil Scenario

Nippon Oil Corporation-Kenichi Komiya
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Hiroshi Moritani
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, problems such as global warming, the depletion of natural resources, and air pollution caused by emissions are emerging on a global scale. These problems call for efforts directed toward the development of fuel-efficient engines and exhaust gas reduction measures. As a solution to these issues, performance improvements should be achieved on the oil that lubricates the sliding sections of engines.This report points to features required of future engine oil-such as contribution to fuel consumption, minimized adverse effects on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system, and improved reliability achieved by sludge reduction-and discusses the significance of these features.For engine oil to contribution of engine oil to lower fuel consumption, we examined the effects of reduced oil viscosity on friction using gasoline and diesel engines. Furthermore, new additives were studied to replace the friction modifier molybdenum that necessitates the use of sulfur, which affects the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This report contains favorable results of a new additive.
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Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Nippon Oil Corporation-Takashi Kaneko
Hino Motors Ltd.-Toshiaki Kakegawa
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined. These engines and a vehicle were equipped with DPF, sophisticated electronic control for fuel injection, turbo-charging and cooled EGR system. Fuel properties include sulfur level, distillation characteristics, and aromatic content. For an NSR catalyst system, the effect of fuel properties…
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Vegetable Oil Hydrogenating Process for Automotive Fuel

Nippon Oil Corporation-Akira Koyama, Hideshi Iki, Yasutoshi Iguchi
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazushi Tsurutani, Hitoshi Hayashi, Seitaro Misawa
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
From the viewpoint of primary energy diversification and CO2 reduction, interests of using Biomass Fuel are rising. Some kinds of FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), which are obtained from oil fats like vegetable oil using transesterification reaction with methanol, are getting Palm Oilpular for bio-diesel recently.In this study, we have conducted many experiments of palm oil hydrogenations using our pilot plants, and checked the reactivity and the pattern of product yields.As a result, we figured out that the hydrocarbon oil equivalent to the conventional diesel fuel can be obtained from vegetable oils in good yield under mild hydrogenation conditions.Moreover, as a result of various evaluations for the hydrogenated palm oil (oxidation stability, lowtemperature flow property, LCA, etc.), we found that the hydrogenated palm oil by our technology has performances almost equivalent to conventional diesel fuel.In addition, we found unique properties compared to conventional diesel fuel, such as high cetane number and lower contents of sulfur and aromatic hydrocarbons. Therefore, we hope our technology could also improve the future automobile performance.
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Investigations of Compatibility of ETBE Gasoline with Current Gasoline Vehicles II

Nippon Oil Corporation-Manabu Watanabe
Fuji Heavy Industries-Kuniaki Atsuta
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
JCAPII gasoline workgroup reported vehicle emission study to comprehend the impact of ETBE blending. In previous study, we focused on the compatibility of ETBE blended gasoline with Japanese current gasoline vehicles in-use. Based on recent discussion with ETBE 8% blended gasoline into the market, more information becomes necessary. In this second report, we studied to comprehend the actual emission impact using realistic model fuels using several base stocks. Fuel properties of T50, T90 and aromatic compound content were selected through discussions. Specifications were changed within the range of the market. Both ETBE 0% and 8% were combined for these fuel matrixes. In total, eight fuels and two reference fuels were tested. Two J-ULEV vehicles (one MPI, and a stoichiometric-SIDI) were procured as representatives. We discussed quantitative and qualitative impact toward emissions. Data regarding CO2 and fuel economy change were also reported.
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Operational performance of eco-friendly engine oils formulated with the sulfur-free additive ZP

Nippon Oil Corporation-Teppei Tsujimoto, Akira Yaguchi, Kazuhiro Yagishita
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
The authors have spent considerable time studying the sulfur-free additive ZP as a means to improve the environmental properties of engine oils. ZP is an alternative compound to ZDDP, which has been a key engine oil additive for over 50 years. The ZP molecule contains oxygen in place of the sulfur found in ZDDP. In our past studies, various engine tests confirmed that ZP-blend engine oils outperform ZDDP-blend oils in terms of long-life and fuel-saving properties.Moreover, by using ZP, levels of sulfur can be reduced without sacrificing the oils' primary performance characteristics, so there less of an adverse effect on emission control systems, and lower levels of vehicle emissions can be achieved.We conducted field tests involving dozens of vehicles to verify the fuel economy retention and long-life performance of ZP oils. We report the results in this paper. For the field tests, we used ZP oils of 10W-30 and 5W-30 viscosities, and commercial vehicles operating in different parts of Japan.The results showed that the ZP oils provided long-life performance superior to that of the ZDDP…
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