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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Nexum Research Corp.-Michael Bardon, Greg Pucher
Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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Improving the Fuel Efficiency of Light-Duty Ethanol Vehicles - An Engine Dynamometer Study of Dedicated Engine Strategies

Nexum Research Corp.-David P. Gardiner, Robert W. Mallory, Greg R. Pucher, Marc K. Todesco
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Tony J. Markel, James M. Ohi
Published 1999-10-25 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an experimental study to determine the potential for fuel efficiency improvements offered by dedicated, high compression E85 engines with optimized powertrain calibration strategies. The study involved a prototype variable fuel engine that could operate using either gasoline or E85, and a high compression version of the same engine that was suitable only for E85. Fuel consumption and engine-out emissions were evaluated using steady-state engine dynamometer tests to represent urban and highway speed/load conditions.For each fuel and engine combination, the fuel efficiency and emissions trade-offs provided by varying Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) levels were determined. For the high compression engine, operation at lower speed/higher load conditions (producing the same power as the standard speed/load settings) was also investigated. This was of interest because the opportunity would exist to trade off the improved acceleration performance of a dedicated E85 vehicle (due to the higher torque output of the high compression engine) for improved fuel efficiency using different driveline gearing.The dedicated E85 engine with optimized EGR levels was found to provide improvements in gasoline equivalent…
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