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Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Neste-Jukka Nuottimäki, Markku Honkanen
FEV Europe GmbH-Om Parkash Bhardwaj, Bastian Holderbaum
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2295
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.In a second stage, WLTP cycle simulations were used to quantify the emissions and fuel consumption benefits with HVO, both for a drop-in scenario as well as for a scenario where HVO was operated with a dedicated calibration.…
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Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

Neste-Kalle Lehto
BP International Ltd.-John Williams
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle. A large number of fuels blended with and without oxygenates and ranging from around 95 to 103 RON and sensitivities (RON minus MON) up to around 15 were tested. The results were vehicle dependent but in general, showed that sensitivity and octane index appear to be…
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Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

Neste-Kalle Lehto
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Athanasios Dimaratos
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies. The tests were conducted in two driving cycles, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), which is considered closer to real driving and is going to be the new type approval test in…
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A Study of the Size, Number and Mass Distribution of the Automotive Particulate Emissions from European Light Duty Vehicles

Neste-L. Rantanen
BP-D. E. Hall
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
Particulate matter in the air has become the focus of increased attention due to the concern of potential health effects. Among other sources, automotive vehicles are seen as a major contributor of fine particles. At present there is limited information available relating either to the number or size distribution of automotive particle emissions and detailed evidence has still to be established. To develop an understanding in the area of automotive particulate emissions a programme was carried out concentrating on tailpipe emissions as measured at the regulated particulate sampling point in a dilution tunnel.A previous literature study by CONCAWE had identified analytical techniques considered to be suitable for this application and which are capable of measuring both mass and number size distributions. Several variations of these techniques are available in the research field and the programme aimed to assess and compare their operation and performance.Four Diesel and three gasoline vehicles were tested, using a limited fuel matrix and varied driving conditions. In general, gasoline particulate emissions (mass and number) were lower than those for Diesel, but…
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