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Ultra-Low NOx Emission Prediction for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications Using a Map-Based Approach

Navistar Inc.-Navtej Singh, Brad Adelman, Srinivasulu Malagari
Ohio State University-Kyle Hickey
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As vehicle emissions regulations become increasingly stringent, there is a growing need to accurately model aftertreatment systems to aid in the development of ultra-low NOx vehicles. Common solutions to this problem include the development of complex chemical models or expansive neural networks. This paper aims to present the development process of a simpler Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) conversion efficiency Simulink model for the purposes of modeling tail pipe NOx emission levels based on various inputs, temperature shifts and SCR locations, arrangements and/or sizes in the system. The main objective is to utilize this model to predict tail pipe NOx emissions of the EPA Federal Test Procedures for heavy-duty vehicles. The model presented within is focused exclusively on heavy-duty application compression ignition engines and their corresponding aftertreatment setups. The accuracy of the model depends heavily on the ability to gain precise and repeatable test cell data to calculate an expansive SCR conversion efficiency map for the given aftertreatment system. This conversion efficiency map is verifiable based on expected/known chemical and physical properties of SCR aftertreatment systems.…
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Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

Navistar Inc.-Jeanelle Morris
Center For Quality Assurance-Michael Kunselman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges. Various fuel properties of concerns from OEMs perspective are discussed, and details of the TOP TIER TM Diesel standard, including the test methods and corresponding limits, are described.
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AUTOSAR Model-Based Software Component Integration of Supplier Software

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Navistar Inc.-Saleh Mirheidari, Abdolreza Fallahi, David Zhang, Kumar Kuppam
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2848
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
AUTOSAR is finding its way into the automotive industry. European automotive manufacturing companies were the early adopters defining and promoting AUTOSAR standard. One of the main AUTOSAR goals is to improve containment of product and process complexity and risk. Increased scalability and flexibility to integrate and transfer functions is another important goal of AUTOSAR. Working with different suppliers and vendors and respect their confidentiality makes the process of application software development even more complex. Presented in this paper is a creative way of utilizing AUTOSAR to overcome the integration challenges in a multi-party object code based software integration. The run time environment (RTE) files for the application software are generated through a set of scripts to automate the process for consecutive releases. The low level device drivers are configured by one supplier and are being used by another supplier through a set of AUTOSAR client-server operation calls. The software has gone through several successful releases and is being tested in Dynamometer and Vehicle. AUTOSAR has helped establishing a common understanding of software architecture, software artifacts…
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Feature Addition or Enhancement by using Model Based Design

Navistar Inc.-Amrut A. Patki
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Feature Addition or Enhancement is a necessary fragment of product development. Feature Addition or Enhancement is a result of one of the following: scope addition to new product development or customer requirement on current products.When it comes to Scope Addition, most of the times, first phase design and engineering will have been completed. Feature Addition or Enhancement because of scope addition is done to improve quality, cost or marketability.Current or future customer request for a feature addition or enhancement to meet their needs leads to customer requirement Feature Addition or Enhancement. Most of the times, vehicle has already been launched and design is frozen.In both the cases, design and engineering is challenged by Time, Effort and Cost. Model Based Design approach helps save some time for implementation. It also helps to improve required effort and reduces the cost of the feature by optimization.This paper demonstrates the approach of Feature Addition or Enhancement by using Model Based Design.
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Driveline Optimization by Mini Crossmember

Navistar Inc.-Amrut A. Patki
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Several critical factors influence the conventional practice of defining driveline propeller shafts. One of these is the location of the center bearing bracket mounting. This in-turn depends on the frame ladder's crossmember. It has been observed that this dependence results in more number of joints and propeller shafts. “Driveline optimization by mini crossmember” is one of the solutions that offers flexibility in regards to the location of the center bearing bracket. Also this helps in achieving optimization.
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Improving the Precision of Truck Pass-By Testing

Navistar Inc.-Sam Mleczko, Eglind Myftiu, Blake Rager
E-A-R Thermal Acoustic Systems-Steven Jorro, John Zehme
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of full acceleration truck pass-by noise conforming to Type ECE-51 regulation (Reference 1) was predicted in a hemi-anechoic chassis dynamometer chamber with microphone arrays and compared with actual test track results. This gave a close match to the track data, with both showing a 4 dB reduction in the A-weighted overall noise level after identical acoustic treatments were applied.Noise control materials were selected to perform as acoustic barriers and absorbers. These were optimized by analyzing the 1/3 octave spectra, determining dominant frequency bands, in critical source locations and engine speeds, and using combinations that dissipate or contain energy well within those bands. With the truck being stationary while tested, important source locations could be quickly identified both subjectively and with localization tools such as Beamforming.Chamber acoustic, engine (CAN), dynamometer and HVAC data were examined in light of the inherent test track variability, arising firstly from varying starting speeds, and secondly from varying engine performance, due to changing ambient temperature and humidity during track tests.By comparing with the much more stable chamber data we…
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DPF Soot Estimation Challenges and Mitigation Strategies and Assessment of Available DPF Technologies

Navistar Inc.-Nishant Singh, Silpa Mandarapu
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) have been widely used to control the particulate emissions and have become an indispensable feature of the modern diesel engines. However, DPFs also result in additional fuel consumption from added back pressure and periodic regenerations required for oxidizing the accumulated particulate matter. Aftertreatment calibrations are developed with a significant emphasis on the reducing these penalties. It is desirable to accumulate higher levels of particulate matter before regeneration and perform active regenerations at higher temperatures. This capacity is generally limited by the substrate and catalyst properties and also the inaccuracies in the DPF soot accumulation estimation. Several advancements have been made in the DPF material technologies to mitigate these limitations.This publication describes the performance of various DPF technologies. Silicon Carbide, Aluminum Titnate and Acicular Mullite substrate materials that were tested in controlled test cell environment. The back pressure of the substrates was investigated with varying levels of accumulated particulates in the DPF. The particulate matter storage capacity was determined by examining the substrate integrity and filtration efficiency after conducting standard drop to…
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Development of the NOx Emission Model for the Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application Using Combustion Characteristic Parameters

Navistar Inc.-Navtej Singh, Prasanna Nagabushan-Venkatesh, Eduardo Nigro, Adam Lack
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Tighter emission norms and fuel economy demands have prompted diesel engine manufacturers to implement Aftertreatment systems for both light-duty and heavy-duty diesel applications. After implementing Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology to comply with 2007 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulations, OEMs have turned their attention towards NOx reductions with SCR technology. Current SCR technologies include liquid based Urea injection into the exhaust stream for NOx reductions and Solid Ammonia Storage and Delivery System (ASDS) which involves dosing gaseous Ammonia. Irrespective of the technology in use, the estimation of engine-out NOx emissions plays a vital role in reductant (Urea/Ammonia) dosing estimation via feed-back controls. The general method for determination of the engine-out NOx emissions is to use commonly available NOx emission sensors (NOx Sensors). However, NOx sensors have their own drawbacks. With On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) requirements in place for the 2013 model year, the use of additional sensors translates to additional implementation costs adding up to warranty and maintenance costs. Therefore, the necessity of the virtual engine out NOx emission estimation is very important. In this…
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Exhaust Volume Flow based Time Alignment in NOx Measurements in NOx Reduction Systems

Navistar Inc.-Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Navtej Singh, Adam Lack
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
With the emission norms becoming more and more stringent along with the focus on reducing ownership and operating costs, the need to optimize the aftertreatment system becomes much more evident. Thus, the well monitored, optimized usage of urea or ammonia (NH₃) for the NOx reduction in an SCR system is critical to reduce the operating cost of the vehicles and to comply with emission regulations. In Ammonia Storage and Delivery System (ASDS), pure gaseous NH₃ from the NH₃ cartridges is being used for the reduction of the engine-out NOx in the exhaust stream over the NPF (NOx Particulate Filter). In almost all NOx reduction systems, NOx sensors play an important role in determining the amount of urea or NH₃ to be dosed for efficient NOx reduction with minimal NH₃ consumption and slippage for best possible fluid economy. In the NH₃ dosing strategy the NOx conversion efficiency plays a vital role as a feedback variable for calculating NH₃ dosing quantity and is based on the upstream and downstream NOx sensor measurements. Since the NOx sensors are…
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Computational Study of Combustion Optimization in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using In-Cylinder Blending of Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

Navistar Inc.-Yu Zhang, William De Ojeda
Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants-David Wickman
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. This investigation utilized 3-D KIVA combustion simulation to guide the development of viable dual-fuel low temperature combustion strategies for heavy-duty applications.Model-based combustion optimization was performed at 1531rpm and 11 bar BMEP for a 12.4 L heavy-duty truck engine. Various engine operating parameters were explored through design of experiments (DoE). The parameters involved in the optimization process included compression ratio, air-fuel ratio, EGR rate, gasoline-to-diesel ratio, and diesel injection strategy (i.e., single-diesel injection vs. two-diesel injections, diesel injection timings, and the split ratio between two-diesel injections). Optimal cases showed near zero soot emissions and very low NOx emissions. Moreover, fuel consumption was improved 11-13% over baseline diesel operation. Compared to a compression ratio of 16, a compression ratio of 14 was found to require a lower gasoline-to-diesel ratio and provide improved fuel consumption. Suitable diesel injection strategies and recommended air system targets were identified.
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